The situation when several opposite orders for one security are open also cannot be considered reasonable. Graphical Interfaces X: The Multiline Text box control build 8. Reflections of a Trader in the World of Commodities. Vincent and the Grenadines IBC No. MetaTrader 5 Trading Platform. Graphical interfaces X: Advanced management of lists and tables.

Simple Programs in MQL4. Simple Expert Advisor Before starting to program a trading Expert Advisor, it is necessary to define general principles of a future program. There are no strict program creating rules. However, once having created a program, a cps usually continues to improve it. To be able to easily understand the program in future, it must be created in accordance with a well-thought and easy-to-understand scheme it is especially important if a program will be further improved by another programmer.

The most convenient program is the one that consists of functional blocks, each of which is responsible for its part of calculations. To create an algorithm of a trading Expert Advisor, let's analyze what an operating program should do. One of the most important data in the formation of trade orders is the information about orders that already exist in a client terminal.

Some of trading strategies allow only one unidirectional order. Generally, if a trading strategy allows, several orders can be open in a terminal at the same time, though their number should be reasonably limited. When using any strategy, trade decisions should be made taking into account the current situation. Before a trade decision is made in a program, it is necessary to know what trading orders have already been opened or placed. First metatrader sample ea vs cpa all a program must contain a block of orders accounting which is among the first to be executed.

During an EA execution trading decisions should be jetatrader, the implementation of which leads to the execution of trade operations. Code part responsible for trade orders formation is better written in a metatrader sample ea vs cpa block. An Expert Advisor can form a trade request to open a new pending or market order, close or modify any of existing orders or perform no actions at all. An EA must also calculate order prices depending on a user's desire. Trade decisions should be made in a program on the bases of trade criteria.

The success of the whole program depends on the correctness of detecting trade criteria in the program. When calculating trade criteria a program can and must take into account all samlle that can be useful. For example, an Expert Advisor can analyze combination of technical indicator values, time of important news releases, current time, values of some price levels, etc.

Fa convenience, the program part responsible for the calculation of trading criteria should be written in a separate block. A trading Expert Advisor must necessarily contain error processing block. Analyzing errors that may occur in the execution of trade operation allows, on the one side, to repeat a trade request and, on the other hand, to inform a user about a possible conflict situation. Below is a structural scheme of a simple Expert Advisor constructed on the basis of several functional blocks, in each block a certain detached part of calculations.

Structural scheme of a simple Expert Advisor. On the following EA development stage there forex web trader review windows no program code yet. At the same time the algorithm of a program is to a great extent formed. How the EA built on the bases of the offered scheme will operate can be easily understood simply looking on the scheme and orienting upon block names and relations arrays control passing between them.

After program start control is defined contribution pension plan investopedia forex to the block of preliminary processing. In this block some general parameters can be analyzed. For example, if there are not enough bars in a window bars necessary for calculating parameters of technical indicatorsan EA will not be able to operate adequately. Metatrader sample ea vs cpa such a case an EA must terminate operation preliminarily informing eaa user about it and reporting about the reason of termination.

If there are no contraindicatons of a general character, control is passed to order accounting block. In the block of accounting orders the number and quality of orders existing in a client terminal for a security to the window of which the EA is attached is detected. In this block orders of other securities must be eliminated. If a programmed trading strategy requires using only market orders and does not use pending orders the fact of presence of pending orders must be detected.

If a strategy admits only one market order and there are actually several orders, this fact should also be known. The task of the order accounting block in this scheme is in defining whether the current trading situation corresponds with an expected one, i. If the situation corresponds, control must be passed to the next block to continue the EA's operation; if not, the EA's operation must be terminated and this fact must be reported to a user.

If there are no orders in the terminal or the number and quality of existing orders corresponds to what was expected, control is sampe to the block of defining trading criteria. In this block all criteria necessary for making trade decisions are calculated, namely criteria for opening, closing and modifying bs. Further control is passed to the block of closing orders.

It is easy to understand why in the offered scheme the block of closing orders is executed earlier than the block of opening orders. It is always more reasonable to process first existing orders close or modify and only after that to open new orders. Generally, it is correct to be guided by the desire to have as little orders as possible. During the execution of this block all orders, for which the closing criterion has been activated, must be closed.

After all necessary orders has been closed, control is passed to a block of new orders size calculation. There are a lot of algorithms for calculating an order volume. The simplest of them is using a constant, fixed lot size. It is convenient to use this algorithm in a program for testing strategies. If free margin is not enough, the program terminates its operation having informed a user about the reason. Aample the number of lots for opening new orders is defined, control is passed to order opening block.

If any of criteria calculated earlier points to the necessity of opening an order of a certain type, a trade request to open an order is formed in this block. There is also error analyzing block in an Expert Advisor. If any trade operation failed, control only in this case is passed to the error processing block. If an error returned by a server or client terminal is not crucial, one more attempt is made to perform a trade operation. If a crucial error is returned for example, an account is blockedan EA must terminate its operation.

Remember, in MQL4 there is no possibility of program terminating an EA's operation in a security window as distinct from scripts, see Special Functions. What can be done in a program way is samlpe termination of start. Zample a new start of the function start on a new tick the value of a certain variable-flag prohibiting trading metatraxer this case enabled as a result of a critical error can be analyzed and control can be passed for the termination of the special function operation; thus formation of new trade request is not permitted.

In the offered scheme the flag value is analyzed in the block of preliminary processing. Market prices are constantly moving. Market state at any moment of time can be conditionally characterized either as a bs - strong unidirectional price change rise or fallor as a flat - lateral price movement with weak deviations from metatrader sample ea vs cpa certain average. These market characteristics are conditional, because there are no clear criteria, according to which trend or flat can be identified.

For example, long lateral movements with strong deviations that can be traced neither to eea flat nor to a trend. Flat and trend in the market. All trading strategies also can be conventionally divided into two main groups. The first group contains flat-oriented strategies. The main idea of such strategies is that after an evident deviation price must return to the previous position, that's why orders are opened in the direction contrary to the last price movement. The second group strategies are trend strategies, when orders are opened in the same direction as the salt price movement.

There are more complicated combined strategies. Such strategies take into account many different factors that characterize market; as a result trading can be executed both on flat and trend. It is not hard to implement trading according to this or that strategy technically - MQL4 contains all necessary means for it. The main metahrader in the creation of once own strategy consists in the search of trading criteria.

In this example we will try to construct a trend Expert Advisor, i. So, we need to find among various technical indicators those that detect a trend beginning. One of the simplest methods of searching trading criteria is based on the analysis of the combination of MAs with different averaging periods. Averages with small averaging period red lines are closer to a price chart, twisty and metateader. Moving averages with larger period of averaging blue line are more inert, have larger lag and are situated farther from market prices.

Let's pay attention to places where MAs with different averaging periods cross and try to decide, whether the fact of MA crossing can be used as a reading criterion. Crossing of MA 11 and MA 31 when price movement direction changes. In point A the red line crosses the blue one from bottom upwards, after that the market price continues growing for some time. Further reverse MA crossing indicates the price movement direction change. If we open a Buy order at point A and close it at B, we will get profit proportional to difference of A and B prices.

At the same time there are other moments in the market when MA cross, but this does not lead to further considerable price rise or fall Fig. Orders opened at MA crossing at such moments will lead to losses. If Sell is opened at A and closed at B, such trading will bring losses. The same can be said about a Buy order opened at B and closed at C. The success of the whole strategy implemented on the basis of MA crossing depends on the number of parts that can be characterized as trend and flat.

In flat often MA crossing is a regular event vx interferes with any trend strategy. Numerous false signals as a rule lead to losses. That is why this sign - crossing of MAs with different averaging period - can be used for building trading strategies only in combination with other signs proving a trend. In this example for constructing a xpa Expert Advisor we will have to refuse using this sign. We will use another sign. Analyzing visually the character of price changes in the market, we can see that a long one-direction price rise or fall often appears as a result of a short strong movement.

In other words, if within a short period a strong movement happened, we may expect its continuation in a medium-term period. Strong price movement can lead to a trend development. As the "a strong movement" we may use the difference of MAs with different averaging periods. The stronger the movement, the larger is the lag metatrader sample ea vs cpa MA cps larger averaging period from MA with a small period of averaging.

Moreover, even strong discontinuous price movements with further return do samppe result in a large difference between MAs, i. For example, price jump by 50 points with further vss in the center in Fig. Metatrader sample ea vs cpa the same time a really strong movement which is not usually accompanied by a considerable correction in point A resulted in the difference increase up to 25 - 30 points. If Buy order is opened when a certain value of difference between MAs is reached, for example in A, most probably the order will be profitable when a price reaches a preset Stop order value.

Let's use this value as a trading criterion in our Expert Advisor. In this example we analyze an Expert Advisor that admits presence of only one market order, pending orders are not provided. Such an approach is justified not only in this certain example, but can be used as the basis for any strategy. Pending orders are usually used when a developer has quite a reliable criterion for forecasting the future price change with high probability. If there is no such criterion, no need to use pending orders.

The situation when several opposite megatrader for one security are open also cannot be considered reasonable. It was written earlier that from economical point of view opposite orders are considered to be senseless, especially if the order prices are equal metatader Closing and Deleting Orders. In such a case we should close one order by another one and wait for a signal to open one market order in a certain direction. From this position it becomes clear what relations are possible between trading criteria.

Actions opening and closing market orders take place clockwise on the following pictures. Order opening and closing criteria correlation a and b - correct, c - incorrect. The most popular variant of a correctly formed trading criteria is the variant a. After being opened a market order Buy is held upon till the moment when criterion requiring its closing triggers. After that a pause occurs when no orders are opened. Further a market order Sell can samlpe opened.

Conditions for closing a Sell order in accordance with correctly sampke criteria occur earlier, than conditions for opening a Buy order. However, a Buy order can be opened once again, if a trading criterion requires this. But according to this variant a market order cannot be opened if dpa is an open market order in the contrary direction. Similar criteria correlation is in the variant b. The difference is that a criterion for opening any market order is at the same time a criterion for closing the opposite order.

This variant like the variant a does not allow several orders opened in the terminal at the same time on one security. The variant of criteria correlation is incorrect. According to this variant opening of a market order is allowed when contrary orders are not closed yet, which is senseless. There can be rare cases when this variant is partially justified. Opening of an opposite order is sometimes acceptable for compensating losses occurring at small corrections after strong price movements.

In such cases an opposite order can be opened of the same or smaller value than the already existing one and then closed when the correction is over. Such a tactic allows not to interfere with the "main" order opened in the trend direction. In general case several one-direction orders are also possible. This may be justified when an earlier opened order is protected by a Stop order and the criterion pointing at the price development in the same direction triggered once again.

However, when creating such a strategy, a developer must be fully aware that in case of a sharp price movement change the placed stop orders may be unexecuted by some brokers at the first price touch. And the loss will be proportionate to the total value of one-directional market orders. In our example we use variant b of trading criteria correlation. All opened market orders are closed either by a stop order or after a criterion of metatraxer an order in opposite direction triggers here criterion of closing Buy coincides with that of opening Sell and vice versa.

In any trading strategy order sizes should be reasonably limited. In a simple case a fixed order size is used in an Expert Advisor. Before EA operation start, a user can wa any size of future orders and leave it unchanged for some time. Further if balance changes, a user can set up a new value of lot numbers of opened orders. A too small order size provides more confidence in operation at the unpredictable market change, but the profit in case of success will be not so large.

If the order size meratrader too large, large profit can be metatrafer, but such an EA will be too risky. In this example both variants are implemented. A user may choose either to indicate directly values of orders or set the value in percentage from the metatrader sample ea vs cpa margin. A simple trend Expert Advisor tradingexpert. A program is considered to be correctly written, if it can be easily read by other programmers, that's metatrader sample ea vs cpa all main program parts and main moments characterizing the strategy must be commented.

This is also why it is recommended to declare and comment all variables at the beginning of the program. According to rules, external and global variables mftatrader be opened before their first usage see Types of Variables. All local variables of the function start are gathered and described in the upper function part block immediately after the function header. Rules of declaring local variables do not ra it, but metattader do not prohibit. If a programmer faces difficulties in understanding the meaning of a variable when reading the program, he can refer to the upper program part and find out the meaning and type of any variable.

It is very convenient in programming practice. In this example the preprocessing consists of two parts ca The program terminates operation if there are not enough bars metatrader sample ea vs cpa a security window; in such a case it is impossible to detect correctly in block values of moving averages necessary for calculating criteria. Besides here the value of the variable Work is analyzed. In the normal EA operation the variable value is always 'true' it is set once during initialization.

If a critical error occurs in the program operation, 'false' is assigned to this variable and start finishes its operation. This value will metatrader sample ea vs cpa change in future, that is why the following code is not executed. In such a case the program operation must be stopped and the reason for the critical error must be detected if needed, a dealing center must be contacted.

After the situation is solved, the program can be started once again, i. The described Expert Vz allows working only with one market order. The task of the orders accounting block block is to define characteristics of an opened order, if there is one. In each cycle iteration the next order is selected by the function OrderSelect.

If the selection is executed successfully i. In the line: all orders opened for another security are eliminated. Operator 'continue' stops the iteration and characteristics of such an order are not processed. But if the order is opened for the security, to the window of which the EA is attached, it is further analyzed.

If OrderType returns value more than 1 see Types of Tradesthe selected order is a pending one. But in this Expert Advisor managing pending orders is not provided. It means the execution of start must be terminated, because a conflict situation occurred. In such a case after a message about the operation termination start execution is stopped by the operator 'return'.

If the last check showed that the analyzed order is a market order, the total number of orders for a security is calculated and analyzed. For the first of such metatrader sample ea vs cpa all necessary characteristics are defined. If in the next iteration the order counter variable Total finds the second market order, the situation is also considered to be conflict, szmple the EA cannot manage more than one market order. In such a case start execution is stopped after showing a corresponding message.

As a result of the order accounting block execution if all checks were successful the variable Total preserves its zero value if there are no market orders, or gets the value 1 if there is a market order for our security. In the latter case some variables set in correspondence with the order characteristics number, type, opening price, stop levels and order value also get their values.

In the analyzed example definition of trading criteria block is calculated on the bases metatrader sample ea vs cpa difference between Moving Averages with different periods of averaging. According to accepted criteria a chart is bull-directed if the current value of the MA with smaller period is larger than the value of MA with larger period, and the difference between the values is larger than a certain value.

In a bear movement MA with smaller period is lower than MA with larger period and the difference is also larger than a certain critical value. The fact of significance of any trading criterion is expressed via the value of a corresponding variable. In this case the criterion for closing Sell coincides with that for opening Buy, criterion for opening Sell coincides with that for closing Buy.

It was written earlier that this Expert Advisor is intended for operation only with one market order opened for a security, to which window the EA is attached. To the moment when control in the program is passed to the order closing block it is known for sure that at the current moment there are either no orders for the security, or there is only sanple market order. That's why the code in orders closing block is written so that only one order can be closed successfully. This block is based on the infinite loop 'while', the body of which consists of two analogous parts: one for closing a Buy order, another for closing a Sell order.

In the header of the first operator 'if' condition for closing a Buy order is calculated Sell orders are closed in the analogous way. If the type of an earlier opened order corresponds to Buy see Types of Trades and the sign for closing Buy is relevant, control is passed to the body of 'if' operator where a request to close is formed. As an order closing price in the fa OrderClose the value of a two-sided quote corresponding to the order type is indicated see Requirements and Limitations in Making Trades.

If a trade operation is executed metqtrader, after a message about the order closing is shown the current 'while' iteration is stopped and the execution of the order closing block is over. Critical errors are divided into two types - those, after which a program execution can be continued for example, a common error and those, after which execution of any trade operations must be stopped for example, blocked account.

If the function returns 0, the current start execution is stopped. If during error processing it is found out that further program execution is senseless for example the program operates on an old client terminal version during the next start the execution of the special function start will be terminated in the block of preliminary processing when analyzing the value of the variable Work.

Amount of lots can be calculated in accordance with a user's settings following one of the two variants. The first variant is a certain constant value set up by a user. According to the second variant the amount of lots is calculated on the basis of a sum equal to a certain percentage set by a user of a free margin.

At the beginning of the block of defining the amount of lots for new orders block necessary values of some variables are calculated - minimal allowed amount of lots and step of lot change set up by a broker, free margin and price metatrader sample ea vs cpa one lot for the security. In this example the following is provided.

If a user has set up a certain non-zero value of the external variable Lts, for example 0. If 0 is assigned to Lts, the number of lots Lts is defined on the basis of the variable Prots percentagemetatraer margin and conditions set up by a broker. After Lts is calculated, a samplf is conducted. If this value is lower than the minimal allowed value, the minimal allowed value is accepted.

The block of opening orders block like the bloke of opening orders is an infinite loop 'while'. In such a case after rates are refreshed prices for stop levels are calculated. Values of stop levels are initially set by a user in external variables StopLoss and TakeProfit. In a general case a user can set values for this parameters smaller that a broker allows. Besides a broker may change the minimal allowed distance at any moment it is an often case at strong market movements, for example, before important news release.

Ccpa why before each order opening stop levels must be calculate taking into account values set bu a user and the minimal allowed value set up by a broker. If the value set by a user corresponds to a broker's requirements, this value is returned. If it is smaller than the allowed value, the value allowed by a broker is used. Prices of stop requests are calculated from the corresponding two-sided quote see Requirements and Limitations in Making Trades.

A trade request to open an order is formed using the function. For the calculation of order opening price and prices of stop requests the two-sided quote values corresponding to the order type are used. If a trade operation was successful i. If an order was not opened and the client terminal returned an error, the error is processed according to the algorithm described earlier. The analyzed Expert Advisor code is oriented to the implementation of a certain strategy. Note, some program lines contain variables and calculations that would be changed, if the strategy were changed.

For example, according to the accepted strategy the Expert Advisor is developed to work only with one order. This allowed to use the variable Ticket both for the identification of a closing order number in block of closing and for the identification of a success of netatrader trade operation execution when opening an order in the block of opening In this case such a solution is acceptable. However, if we take the analyzed code as the basis for the implementation of another strategy for example allow opposite orders we will have to introduce one or several variables to be able to recognize numbers of opened orders and smple the success of trade operations.

In further strategy modifications we will have to change come program lines containing part of logics contained in the source strategy. Namely in the order accounting block we will not have to terminate the program operation if there are several open orders for a security. Besides, conditions for opening and closing orders will alslo change. This will entail the code changing in blocks of opening and closing orders. On the basis of this analysis we can easily conclude that the described simple Expert Advisor is not perfect.

In a general case, for the implementation of order accounting metatarder should use a universal cp based on using data arrays and not containing logics of a certain strategy. The same can be said about the blocks of opening and closing orders. A more complete program must contain a main analytical function, all other user-defined functions must be subordinate to it. This analytical function must contain a program code, in which all conditions for the implementation of any strategy are analyzed; all subordinate functions must perform limited actions.

The function of accounting orders must only account orders, functions of opening samplf closing orders must only open and close orders, and the analytical function must "think" and manage all other functions, i. Usage of Technical Indicators. Creation of Custom Indicators. Custom Indicator ROC Price Rate of Change. Combined Use of Programs. This section dwells on the principles platform dagangan dalam taliban forex knights creating a simple trading Expert Advisor.

Create a trading Expert Advisor. Before starting to program a trading Expert Advisor, it is necessary to define general principles of a future program. Structure of a Simple Expert Advisor. Relation of Trading Metatader. Size of Opened Orders. Waiting for a new tick. One more criterion in cpaa estimation is its readability. In the block external and global variables are described.

Block of preliminary processing. Trading criteria accepted in this example are used for educational purpose only and must not be considered as a guideline when trading on a real account. Calculating Amount of Lots for New Orders. Usage of Technical Indicators Creation of Custom Indicators. MetaTrader 5 Trading Platform.

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