This procedure accepts only exact matches for the parameters passed. When a procedure is executed for the first time, it is compiled to determine an optimal access plan to retrieve the data. The output of the obfuscation is not directly visible in any of the catalog views in SQL Server. Returns and locks the cached object if present. The default value must be a constant or it can be NULL.




Creates a Transact-SQL or common language runtime CLR stored procedure in SQL Server, Azure SQL Database, Azure SQL Data Warehouse and Parallel Data Warehouse. Stored procedures are similar to procedures in other programming languages in that they can: Accept input parameters and return multiple values in the form of output parameters to the calling procedure or batch. Contain programming statements that perform operations in the database, including calling other procedures. Return a status value to a calling procedure or batch to indicate success or failure and the reason for failure.

Use this statement to optional output parameter unlock a permanent procedure in the current database or a temporary procedure in the tempdb database. NET Framework CLR into SQL Server is discussed in this topic. CLR integration does not apply to Azure SQL Database. Jump to Simple Examples to skip the details of the syntax and get to a quick example of a basic stored procedure. Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions OR ALTER Applies to : Azure SQL Database, SQL Server starting with SQL Server SP1.

If a schema name is not specified when the procedure is created, the default schema of the user who is creating the procedure is automatically assigned. Procedure names must comply with the rules for identifiers and must be unique within the schema. This prefix is used by SQL Server to designate system procedures. Using the prefix can cause application code to break if there is a system procedure with the same name.

A local temporary procedure is visible only to the connection that created it and is dropped when that connection is closed. A global temporary procedure is available to all connections and is dropped at the end of the last session using the procedure. Temporary names cannot be specified for CLR procedures. The complete name for a procedure or a global temporary procedure, includingcannot exceed characters. The complete name for a local temporary procedure, includingcannot exceed characters.

An optional integer that is used to group procedures of the same name. Optional output parameter unlock grouped procedures can be dropped together by using one DROP PROCEDURE statement. This feature will be removed in a future version of Microsoft SQL Server. Avoid using this feature in new development work, and plan to modify applications that currently use this feature.

Numbered procedures cannot use the xml or CLR user-defined types and cannot be used in a plan guide. Specify a parameter name by using the at sign as the first character. The parameter name must comply with the rules for identifiers. Parameters optional output parameter unlock local to the procedure; the same parameter names can be used in other procedures. One or more parameters can be declared; the maximum is 2, The value of each declared parameter must be supplied by the user when the procedure is called unless a default value for the parameter is defined or the value is set to equal another parameter.

If a procedure contains table-valued parametersand the parameter is missing in the call, an empty table is passed in. Parameters can take the place only of constant expressions; they cannot be used instead of table names, column names, or the names of other database objects. For more information, see EXECUTE Transact-SQL.

You can use the user-defined table type to create table-valued parameters. Table-valued parameters optional output parameter unlock only be INPUT parameters and must be accompanied by the READONLY keyword. For more information, see Use Table-Valued Parameters Database Engine cursor data types can only be OUTPUT parameters and must be accompanied by the VARYING keyword.

All of the native SQL Server data types that have an equivalent in managed code can be used as parameters. For more information about the correspondence between CLR types and SQL Server system data types, see Mapping CLR Parameter Data. For more information about SQL Server system data types and their syntax, see Data Types Transact-SQL. If the data type of the parameter is a CLR user-defined type, you must have EXECUTE permission on the type. VARYING Specifies the result set supported as an output parameter.

This parameter is dynamically constructed by the procedure and its contents may vary. Applies only to cursor parameters. This option is not valid for CLR procedures. If a default value is defined for a parameter, the procedure can be executed without specifying a value for that parameter. The default value must be a constant or it can be NULL. The constant value can be in the form of a wildcard, making it possible to use the LIKE keyword when passing the parameter into the procedure. See Example C below.

Default values are recorded in the sys. That column will be NULL for Transact-SQL procedure parameters. OUT OUTPUT Indicates that the parameter is an output parameter. Use OUTPUT parameters to return values to the caller of the procedure. An output parameter can be a cursor placeholder, unless the procedure is a CLR procedure. A table-value data type cannot be specified as an OUTPUT parameter of a procedure.

READONLY Indicates that the parameter cannot be updated or modified within the body of the procedure. If the parameter type is a table-value type, READONLY must be specified. RECOMPILE Indicates that the Database Engine does not cache a query plan for this procedure, forcing it to be compiled each time it is executed. For more information major key signatures flats the reasons for forcing a recompile, see Recompile a Stored Procedure.

To instruct the Database Engine to discard query plans for individual queries inside a procedure, use the RECOMPILE query hint in the definition of the query. For more information, see Query Hints Transact-SQL. Indicates that SQL Server will convert the original text of the CREATE PROCEDURE statement to an obfuscated format. The output of the obfuscation optional output parameter unlock not directly visible in any of the catalog views in SQL Server.

Users who have no access to system tables or database files cannot retrieve the obfuscated text. However, the text will be available to optional output parameter unlock users who can either access system tables over the DAC port or directly access database files. Also, users who can attach a debugger to the server process can retrieve the decrypted procedure from memory at runtime. For more information about accessing system metadata, see Metadata Visibility Configuration. EXECUTE AS clause Specifies the security context under which to optional output parameter unlock the procedure.

For natively compiled stored procedures, starting SQL Server and in Azure SQL Database, there are no limitations on the EXECUTE AS clause. For more information, see EXECUTE AS Clause Transact-SQL. Specifies that the procedure is created for replication. Consequently, it cannot be optional output parameter unlock on the Subscriber. You can use the optional BEGIN and END keywords to enclose the statements. For information, see the Best Practices, General Remarks, and Limitations and Restrictions sections that follow.

Specifies the method of optional output parameter unlock. NET Framework assembly for a CLR procedure to reference. If the class has a namespace-qualified name that uses a period. The specified method must be a static method of the class. By default, SQL Server cannot execute CLR code. You can create, modify, and drop database objects that reference common language runtime modules; however, you cannot execute these references in SQL Server until you enable the clr enabled option.

ATOMIC WITH Applies to : SQL Server through SQL Server and Azure SQL Database. Indicates atomic stored procedure execution. Changes are either committed or all of the changes rolled back by throwing an exception. The ATOMIC WITH block is required for natively compiled forex spreads xtb procedures. If the procedure RETURNs explicitly through the RETURN statement, or implicitly by completing executionthe work performed by the procedure is committed.

If the procedure THROWs, the work performed by the procedure is rolled back. SET options cannot be changed inside ATOMIC blocks. The SET options in the user session are not used in the scope of natively compiled stored procedures. These options are fixed at compile time. There is one ATOMIC block per natively compiled stored procedure, at the outer scope of the procedure. The blocks cannot be nested. For more information about atomic blocks, see Natively Compiled Stored Procedures.

NULL NOT NULL Determines whether null values are allowed in a parameter. NULL is the default. Indicates that the procedure is natively compiled. For more information, see Natively Compiled Stored Procedures. Ensures that tables that are referenced by a procedure cannot be dropped or altered. Equivalent to SET LANGUAGE Transact-SQL session option. Required for natively compiled stored procedures. Specifies the transaction isolation level for the stored procedure. If another transaction modifies data that has been read by the current transaction, the current transaction will fail.

If another transactions modifies data that has been read by the current transaction, the current transaction will fail. If another transaction inserts put option dividend irrelevance rows with key values that would fall in the range of keys read by any statements in the current transaction, the current transaction will fail. SNAPSHOT Specifies that data read by any statement in a transaction will be the transactionally consistent version of the data that existed at the start of the transaction.

Specifies the first day of the week to a number from 1 through 7. If it is not specified, the setting is inferred from the specified language. For more information, see SET DATEFIRST Transact-SQL. Specifies the order of the month, day, and year date parts for interpreting date, smalldatetime, datetime, datetime2 and datetimeoffset character strings. For more information, see Control Transaction Durability. You can wrap that statement in a stored procedure, such as: Slightly more complex, is to provide an input parameter to make the procedure more flexible.

For example: Provide a database id number when you call the procedure. Optional output parameter unlock Examples towards the end of this topic for many more examples. Although this is not an exhaustive list of best practices, these suggestions may improve procedure performance. Use the SET NOCOUNT ON statement as the first statement in the body of the procedure. That is, place it just after the AS keyword. This turns off messages that SQL Server sends back to the client after any SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, MERGE, and DELETE statements are executed.

Overall performance of the database and application is improved by eliminating this unnecessary network overhead. For information, see SET NOCOUNT Transact-SQL. Use schema names when creating or referencing database objects in the procedure. It will take less processing time for the Database Engine to resolve object names if it does not have to search multiple schemas. Avoid wrapping functions around columns specified in the WHERE and JOIN clauses.

Doing so makes the columns non-deterministic and prevents the query processor from using indexes. Avoid using scalar functions in SELECT statements that return many rows of data. Because the scalar function must be applied to every row, the resulting behavior is like row-based processing and degrades performance.

Avoid the use of SELECT. Instead, specify the required column names. This can prevent some Database Engine errors that stop procedure execution. Avoid processing or returning too much data. Narrow the results as early as optional output parameter unlock in optional output parameter unlock procedure code so that any subsequent operations performed by the procedure are done using the smallest data set possible. Send just the essential data to the client application. It is more efficient than sending extra data across the network and forcing the client application to work through unnecessarily large result sets.

Optional output parameter unlock transactions mean longer record locking and a greater potential for deadlocking. Use the Transact-SQL TRY…CATCH feature for error optional output parameter unlock inside a procedure. TRY…CATCH can encapsulate an entire block of Transact-SQL statements. This not only creates less performance overhead, it also makes error reporting more accurate with significantly less programming. Use the DEFAULT keyword on all table columns that are referenced by CREATE Learn Forex Trading Nigeria or ALTER TABLE Transact-SQL statements in the body of the procedure.

This will prevent passing NULL to columns that do not allow null values. Use NULL or NOT NULL for each column in a temporary table. If a connection executes a procedure with different settings for these options than the connection that created the procedure, the columns of the table created for the second connection can have different nullability and exhibit different behavior. If NULL or NOT NULL is explicitly stated for each column, the temporary tables are created by using the same nullability for all connections that execute the procedure.

Use modification statements that convert nulls and include logic that eliminates rows with null values from queries. It is a placeholder for an unknown value and can cause unexpected behavior, especially when querying for result sets or using AGGREGATE functions. Use the UNION ALL operator instead of the UNION or OR operators, unless there is a specific need for distinct values. The UNION ALL operator requires less processing overhead because duplicates are not filtered out of the result set.

When a procedure is executed for the first time, it is compiled to determine an optimal access plan to retrieve the data. Subsequent executions of the procedure may reuse the plan already generated if it still remains in the plan cache of the Database Engine. One or more procedures can execute automatically when SQL Server starts. The procedures must be created by the system administrator in the master database and executed under the sysadmin fixed server role as a background process.

The procedures cannot have any input or output parameters. For more information, see Execute a Stored Procedure. Procedures are nested when one procedure call another or executes managed code by referencing a CLR routine, type, or aggregate. Procedures and managed code references can be nested up to 32 levels. The nesting level increases by one when the called optional output parameter unlock or managed code reference begins execution and decreases by one when the called procedure or managed code reference completes execution.

Methods invoked from within the managed code do not count against the nesting level limit. However, when a CLR stored procedure performs data access operations through the SQL Server managed provider, an additional nesting level is added in optional output parameter unlock transition from managed code to SQL. Attempting to exceed the maximum nesting level causes the entire calling chain to fail.

You can use the NESTLEVEL function to return the nesting level of the current stored procedure execution. These original settings are used when the procedure is executed. If the logic of the procedure depends on a particular setting, include a SET statement at the start of the procedure to guarantee the appropriate setting. When a SET statement is executed from a procedure, the setting remains in effect only until the procedure has finished running.

The setting is then restored to the value the procedure had when it was called. This enables individual clients to set the options they want without affecting the logic of the procedure. These must be the only statements in the batch. The SET option chosen remains in effect during the execution of the procedure and then reverts to its former setting. For example, if a variable is defined as char 3and then set to a value larger than three characters, the data is truncated to the defined size and the INSERT or UPDATE statement succeeds.

The CREATE PROCEDURE statement cannot be combined with other Transact-SQL statements in a single batch. A procedure can reference tables that do not yet exist. At creation time, only syntax checking is performed. The procedure is not compiled until it is executed for the first time. Only during compilation are all objects referenced in the procedure resolved. Therefore, a syntactically correct procedure that references tables that do not exist can be created successfully; however, the procedure will fail at execution time if the referenced tables do not exist.

You cannot specify a function name as a parameter default value or as the value passed to a parameter when executing a procedure. However, you can pass a function as a variable as shown in the following example. If the procedure makes changes on a remote instance of SQL Server, the changes cannot be rolled back. Remote procedures do not take part in transactions. For the Database Engine to reference the correct method when it is overloaded in the.

NET Framework, the method specified in the EXTERNAL NAME clause must have the following characteristics: Use parameter types that are compatible with the data types of the corresponding parameters of the SQL Server procedure. For information about matching SQL Server data types to the. NET Framework data types, see Mapping CLR Parameter Data. The following table lists the catalog views and dynamic management views that you can use to return information about stored procedures.

For more information, see SQL Server, Plan Cache Object. Memory-optimized tables can be accessed through both traditional and natively compiled stored procedures. Native procedures are in most cases the more efficient way. The following sample shows how to create a natively compiled stored procedure that accesses a memory-optimized table dbo. For a discussion of programmability in natively compiled stored procedures, supported query surface area, and operators see Supported Features for Natively Compiled T-SQL Modules.

Examples in this section demonstrate the basic functionality of the CREATE PROCEDURE statement using the minimum required syntax. The following example creates a stored procedure that returns all employees first and last names suppliedtheir job titles, and their department names from a view in the AdventureWorks database. This procedure does not use any parameters. The example optional output parameter unlock demonstrates three methods of executing the procedure.

The following example creates the GetPhotoFromDB procedure that references the GetPhotoFromDB method of the LargeObjectBinary class in the HandlingLOBUsingCLR assembly. Before the procedure is created, the HandlingLOBUsingCLR assembly is registered in the local database. Examples in this section demonstrate how to use input and output parameters to pass values to and from a stored procedure. The following example creates a stored procedure that returns information for a specific employee by passing values for the employee's first name and last name.

This procedure accepts only exact matches for the parameters passed. The following example creates a stored procedure that returns information for employees by passing full or partial values for the employee's first name and last name. This procedure pattern matches the parameters passed or, if not supplied, uses the preset default last names that start with the letter D. The uspGetEmployees2 procedure can be executed in many combinations.

Only a few possible combinations are shown here. The following example creates the uspGetList procedure. This procedures returns a optional output parameter unlock of products that have prices that do not exceed a specified amount. The example shows using multiple SELECT statements and multiple OUTPUT parameters. OUTPUT parameters enable an external procedure, a batch, or more than one Transact-SQL statement to access a value set during the procedure execution.

The OUTPUT parameters Cost and ComparePrices are used with control-of-flow language to return a message in the Messages window. The OUTPUT variable must be defined when the procedure is created and also when the variable is used. The following example uses a table-valued parameter type to insert multiple rows into a table. The example creates the parameter type, declares a table variable to reference it, fills the parameter list, and then passes the values to a stored procedure.

The stored procedure uses the values to insert multiple rows into a table. The following example uses the OUTPUT cursor parameter to pass a cursor that is local to a procedure back to the calling batch, procedure, or trigger. First, create the procedure that declares and then opens a cursor on the Currency table: Next, run a batch that declares a local cursor variable, executes the procedure to assign the cursor to the local variable, and then fetches the rows from the cursor.

Examples in this section demonstrate how to insert or modify data in tables or views by including a Data Manipulation Language DML statement in the definition of the procedure. The following example uses an UPDATE statement in a stored procedure. The procedure takes one input parameter, NewHours and one output parameter RowCount.

The NewHours parameter value is used in the UPDATE statement to update the column VacationHours in the table HumanResources. The RowCount output parameter is used to return the number of rows affected to a local variable. A CASE expression is used in the SET clause to conditionally determine the value that is set for VacationHours. Examples in this section demonstrate methods to handle errors that might occur when the stored procedure is executed.

The following example using the TRY…CATCH construct to return error information caught during the execution of a stored procedure. Examples in this section use the WITH RECOMPILE clause to force the procedure to recompile every time it is executed. The WITH RECOMPILE clause is helpful when the parameters supplied to the procedure will not be typical, and when a new execution plan should not be cached or stored in memory. Examples optional output parameter unlock this section use the EXECUTE AS clause to set the security context in which the stored procedure executes.

The following example shows using the EXECUTE AS clause to specify the security context in which a procedure can be executed. In the example, the option CALLER specifies that the procedure can be executed in the context of the user that calls it. The following example uses EXECUTE AS to create custom permissions for a database operation. Some operations such as TRUNCATE TABLE, do not have grantable permissions. By incorporating the TRUNCATE TABLE statement within a stored procedure and specifying that procedure execute as a user that has permissions to modify the table, you can extend the permissions to truncate the table to the user that you grant EXECUTE permissions on the procedure.

This example shows the basic syntax for creating and running a procedure. When running a batch, CREATE PROCEDURE must be the first statement. For example, to create the following stored procedure in AdventureWorksPDWset the database context first, and then run the CREATE PROCEDURE statement. This API is not supported in the currently selected framework. THIS TOPIC APPLIES TO: SQL Server starting with Azure SQL Database Azure SQL Data Warehouse Parallel Data Warehouse.

Stored procedures are similar to procedures in other programming languages in that they can:. Accept input parameters and return multiple values in the form of output parameters to the calling procedure or batch. Note The integration of. Note This feature will be removed in a future version of Microsoft SQL Server. Note The OUTPUT variable must be defined when the procedure is created and also when the variable is used.




Unit 06 Video 6: Optional Parameters


Microsoft AppFabric for Windows Server Supports optimistic concurrency by taking version information as an optional parameter ; Unlock also supports. CREATE PROCEDURE (Transact-SQL) An output parameter can be a cursor placeholder, You can use the optional BEGIN and END keywords to enclose the. Jul 01,  · The Enable-ADOptionalFeature cmdlet enables an Active Directory optional feature that is associated with a particular domain mode or forest mode.