Who ordered the two jumbos! Elle says February 23, at am I have a senior citizen relative who is very much into Jusuru. You probably want to see the section of my MonaVie article here titled: Juice in general is not healthy. I was wondering why I drfinition had pentagrams on my palms. My mild depression left and I stopped getting colds in the winter.

Foreign Policy presents a unique portrait of 's global marketplace of ideas and the thinkers who make them. To the astonishment of many, Thein Sein began loosening restrictions on free speech and opening the economy after coming to power in This year, as the United States restored diplomatic ties with Burma which the junta renamed Myanmar in and eased travel and economic sanctions, his government curbed censorship of the media and freed hundreds of political prisoners.

Fittingly, Aung San Suu Kyi finally was able to accept her Nobel Peace Prize in June. It is to lose some of the links that anchor us to the rest of humanity. Much of the credit goes to President Moncef Marzouki, who has provided vision and wisdom since taking office in December But Marzouki, a former professor of public health, is no starry-eyed idealist. An admirer of Mahatma Gandhi, he devoted himself to human rights early in his career, traveling to India in his youth and South Africa soon after the end of apartheid.

Reading list: Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeedby Jared Diamond; Under a Green Sky: Global Warming, the Mass Extinctions of the Past, and What They Can Tell Us About Our Futureby Peter D. Ward; anthology of haikus. Best idea heard in Tax financial transactions. Worst idea: The support of China, Russia, and Iran to the Syrian regime. American decline or American renewal? More Europe or less? To tweet or not to tweet?

And in a U. But she has also added hardheaded global tactician to her portfolio, as when she spearheaded tense negotiations in China this past spring for the release of dissident Chen Guangcheng No. He has been busy on his own innovative projects as well, touring Africa to promote sustainable agriculture and Haiti to discuss alternative energy, periodically dispensing his homespun wisdom along the way.

Only this strike price put option definition vapid, Bill may be the one at home baking cookies. Hydrogen and electric cars once seemed poised to fill that void, but their costs and upkeep have proved prohibitive. Enter the driverless car, the brainchild of Google fellow and Stanford University computer scientist Sebastian Thrun — and now street-legal.

How radical is it? Thrun has in effect reimagined the future of cars — as more about software than hardware. Thrun thinks the cars could halve the number of annual road deaths, now at more than 1. And because the safer driverless vehicles could be built smaller and lighter, they could also radically reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions. The journey toward a self-driving vehicle began back when Thrun and his team of Stanford researchers spent a year in the California desert designing the Stanley robot car to compete in a Pentagon road race aimed at sparking innovation.

Today, the driverless cars of are hitting the streets. Audi, BMW, Ford, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen, and Volvo are all designing or testing self-driving vehicles now. Plenty of technical hurdles remain — not to mention the need to update current traffic laws that assume a human driver — before the cars are produced for a mass market. Reading list: Steve Jobsby Walter Isaacson. Best idea: New approach to desalinization of seawater.

Worst idea: Cutting taxes for the rich helps poor people. According to Gates Foundation-funded researchincreasing access to contraception could save the lives of more thanwomen each year, slashing maternal mortality by nearly one-third. Most will be spent in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africawhere access to contraceptives is not widespread and maternal and infant mortality rates are devastatingly high.

Contraceptive use already preventsmaternal deaths per year, but millions of women around the world still lack access to modern family planning — precisely the void Gates has taken bold steps to fill. Reading list: In the Shadow of the Banyanby Vaddey Ratner; A Good Man: Rediscovering My Father, Sargent Shriverby Mark Shriver; The Last Hunger Seasonby Roger Thurow. Best idea: Three Tanzanian women who innovated an unbreakable security system for their group mobile money account.

Worst idea: Women in the developing world not being empowered to determine if and when to have a child. American renewal because of the human promise, innovation, and opportunity that exists in our country. More Europe, they continue strike price put option definition vapid be leaders in global development aid. To tweet and join the global conversation. A perennial FP Global Thinker for the enormous scale and ambition of his efforts to finance — and reimagine — global health and development, Bill Gates earns a mention this year for investing in … toilets.

The winning designfrom the California Institute of Technology, uses a solar-powered electrochemical reactor that kills off microorganisms while producing hydrogen and electricity. The foundation hopes to make a pilot version of the system operational by Of course, sanitation is just one sideline for Gates. Meanwhile, Gates and Warren Buffett No. Her own bravery in speaking out for the simple idea that girls should have access to the same education as boys. Malala, who was grievously wounded but miraculously survived, has fit a lifetime of activism into her few short years.

Too bad it took a tragedy to do it. The brainy 44th president is a huge basketball fan, but Barack Obama knows that none of the plays he calls from the Oval Office are slam dunks. You have to own that and feel comfortable with the way you made the decision. But Obama, ever the cautious realist, has been a careful steward of American power. This year has seen the pullout of tens of thousands of U. The president has also been wary of getting entangled in the even bloodier sectarian conflict in Syria, refusing to contemplate a Libya-style intervention, and he has wisely adopted a low-key approach to Egypt as it struggles to preserve its newly won democratic freedoms amid an Islamist resurgence.

Lower income tax rates and simplify the tax code. Cut Medicaid by a third and make it a state-controlled block-grant program. Overhaul Medicare by giving beneficiaries money to buy competing public and private health plans. Reduce non-entitlement spending to its lowest level since World War II. But they might very well prove prescient. A year ago, Chen Guangcheng was living under house arrest in the small Chinese village of Dongshigu, unable to travel or receive visitors and subject to constant harassment by the local authorities.

He was imprisoned for four years for his temerity and then detained in his home, where he faced regular physical abuse. As his fame grew within China, futile attempts to break past the phalanx of guards near his house became a popular method of protest. Chris Smith to actor Christian Bale seeking to visit. Chen shocked the world in April when he made a daring, next-to-impossible escape, climbing over the wall surrounding his house breaking his foot in the process and catching a ride some miles to Beijing, where he took refuge in the U.

After a tense, days-long diplomatic standoff closely involving Secretary of State Hillary Clinton No. Now at New York University, Chen has embraced his new role as an evangelist for human rights, making the case that incremental change — one village or even one person at a time — can eventually transform a superpower. This depends on whether the good nature of common people can be given expression in government policies, including foreign policy.

Flip-flopping gets a bad rap. Yes, it can be depressing to hear politicians cynically reverse strongly held positions from one election cycle to another. Sometimes, however, when a particularly forceful and articulate voice in a policy debate switches sides, it can be the most effective way to shift the entire conversation. David Blankenhorn may not have been the most high-profile gay marriage opponent to have had strike price put option definition vapid change of heart this year — that was President Barack Obama — but he was definitely the most surprising.

The founder of the conservative Institute for American Values wrote The Future of Marriagea book offering intellectual cover to those arguing that same-sex marriage threatens to undermine the institution of the family. This year, however, swayed by the growing support for same-sex marriage, Blankenhorn did a fullputting his heresy on display in the New York Times in June.

Kocherlakota, a lifelong inflation hawk, had been one of the most outspoken opponents of lowering rates and had voted against doing so in Why did he switch? A closer look at the numbers also changed the mind of Richard A. For years, he argued that widely used climate-change models were flawed because thermometers around the world had been placed too near the pavement and scientists were manipulating the temperature data they used.

So Muller, along with his daughter, embarked on his own effort — the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project — which automated data analysis to eliminate human bias. Best idea: Clean fracking producing shale gas in an environmentally acceptable way. Worst idea: Shut down conventional energy Japanese nuclear, Gulf oil. Renewal is possible, but it requires more sensible policies in the three Es: energy, education, and economics.

We need less politicization and more objectivity. Europe is about the right size. Maybe it should add Turkey and Morocco. After Hurricane Sandy wreaked havoc across the Eastern Seaboard in October, an American public distracted for years by the troubles of the Great Recession finally seemed to awake to the destructive potential of a changing climate — which Hansen had been warning of for decades. Since publishing some of the seminal studies on the effects of greenhouse gases inhe has steadily ratcheted up the pressure on public officials to take his dire warnings seriously.

He has been censored by NASA, attacked by conservatives, and denounced by other climate scientists for his advocacy. But Hansen continues to speak widely about a threat he compares to a large asteroid headed for the Earth. We doubt Hansen is happy to see his theories confirmed. She has tacked on mandatory spending cuts to aid packages for GreeceIrelandand Portugal and spearheaded a historic EU deficit-reduction treaty.

All along, the much-misunderstood Merkel has insisted on solving the regional crisis with more Europe, not less. Yet she has done it by deftly catering to the frugal instincts of her political base. The answer could very well determine whether Merkel will be remembered as the savior of the European project or the leader who presided over its demise. At stake is the future of the world. The two Israelis not only sparked a political debate at home but also induced Europe to cut off oil imports from Iran and got U.

President Barack Obama and Mitt Romney into a prolonged argument over which presidential hopeful would be a better ally to the government in Jerusalem. Pretty impressive for a country the size of New Jersey. As Netanyahu, at times an open partisan of forex stochastic trading gold Republicans in the U. More likely, it will be the work of calculating former security officials like onetime intelligence chief Meir Dagan and internal security director Yuval Diskin, who have stepped into the public arena in unprecedented fashion to make a convincing, hard-nosed case that a strike would only make the Iranian threat greater.

Diskin has not only criticized a strike on Iran as unworkable, but has also called into question the capability of Netanyahu and Defense Minister Ehud Barak to make the right decision. These former spymasters are doing their best to help cooler heads prevail, reminding Israelis that not every problem can be solved by their impressive military. As recently as Novemberhe dismissed the notion that the Fed should reorient its policies from inflation to growth targets.

Over time, however, Bernanke reportedly came to realize that the U. And he managed to bring his hawkish board around: On Sept. Hetzel; 1Q84by Haruki Murakami ; The Places in Betweenby Rory Stewart. Best idea: Develop self-driving cars. Worst idea: For the eurozone to double down with a fiscal union. Decline in the short run. More money, less Europe. For shattering their glass cage with a love letter to freedom. Just read the powerful closing statements at their closely watched trial — a ringing manifesto that puts them squarely in the tradition of Henry David Thoreau, Martin Luther King Jr.

In a sense, the band argued, it had already won its case by drawing an almost comical overreaction to an act that would have been treated as a minor infraction almost anywhere else. What could be more punk than that? William McRaven has turned hunting terrorists into an art form, Abraham Karem is the man who provided him with the paintbrush. It has been three decades since Karem, a former Israeli Air Force engineer, retreated to his garage to construct something the Pentagon did not then consider possible — an unmanned drone that would reliably stay aloft for hours on end.

McRaven, who oversees some of the most elite U. He emphasizes the need for speed in commando assaults and extensive planning that relies on precise intelligence, which is where drones come in. In the operation that earned McRaven a spot in the history books — the killing of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan last year — drones provided vital intelligence for months on the compound where the al Qaeda chief was staying.

The raid presented a compelling vision for the 21st-century U. His current project: a Boeing size plane capable of taking off and landing like a helicopter. KAREM Reading list: East to the Dawn: The Life of Amelia Earhartby Susan Butler; Einsteinby Walter Isaacson; Stalinby Dmitri Volkogonov. Best idea: Capital gains tax on a sliding scale 90 percent on assets held less than six months, 10 percent on assets held 10 years.

Worst idea: Acceptance of unlimited growth of political campaign financing without transparency of contributors. Europe has the same economic problems as the U. But it is an unstoppable next step for human contact through computer networks. The Arab Spring might have brought newfound freedoms to the Middle East, but it also saw a wave of Islamists rise to power intent on restricting the liberties of women.

Tunisian feminist Ahlem Belhadj has fought back — and proved in the process that liberals will not remain silent as Islamist forces attempt to hijack the revolution for their own ends. But unfortunately, the year-old child psychiatrist has her work cut out for her. In response, Belhadj helped organize a thousands-strong demonstration in the streets of Tunis to protest what women saw as an open assault on their rights.

The clause was soon reworded, but Belhadj sees more subtle dangers on the horizon. With Syria mired in sectarian mayhem, a few brave souls still stand as a testament to the possibilities — and the extraordinary costs — of nonviolent revolution. We want to build a country for all Syrians. Not all those who have publicly defied Assad have been so fortunate. In a widely discussed New York Review of Books essay in September, he made the case that penny-wise, pound-foolish Germany, not Greece, is the country most at fault in the crisis.

Germany must either lead Europe out of the crisis or leave the eurozone, he argued, which would limit the fallout of the crisis and allow smaller countries to return to growth with a devalued currency. The two had fallen out in recent years, with the increasingly autocratic president booting Banda from his political party in How can a mandazi [fritter] seller be president?

Her work is cut out for her. So far, however, all signs suggest Banda could become a new model for African leadership — shedding the strongman syndrome and getting down to business to help the poor. In March, Ed Morse and several Citigroup colleagues published a page report with a provocative thesis upending the conventional wisdom on global energy scarcity. North America, they said, is hurtling toward energy independence on the strength of shale, oil sands, and deepwater output in Canada, Mexico, and the United States.

Bybooming energy production and declining consumption could have a transformative impact on the sluggish U. The study has already had a far-reaching impact, encouraging strike price put option definition vapid U. And he should know. After all, he wrote it. Best idea: The G-Zero world. The energy revolution in North America could well be the source of long-term American renewal and strength in the 21st century. Much of the credit should go to Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez.

And the disparity, their research found, has recently reached levels not seen since the eve of the Great Depression. Their deep dive through U. Internal Revenue Service tax returns dating to resulted in their signature paper, first published in and recently updated. After the financial crisis, guess which group recovered fastest — and most robustly?

Today, that squiggle has become a favorite smoking gun of left-leaning intellectuals who argue that the rich should bear much more of the U. Piketty, who calls the level of U. More Europe: The world needs the United States of Europe. No tweet so far. We all know the effect of a deadline when it comes to a project at work or paying a bill. Nadim Matta sees this power as something much more consequential. Matta is the head of the Rapid Results Institutea nonprofit that helps poor communities around the world set ambitious goals on timelines so short that they seem unreasonable — just days.

Rapid Results then moves in to train locals, who coach their peers to meet the targets: build a school in a Sudanese village, get people tested for HIV in Addis Ababa, double the number of attended births in a Rwandan town. The driving idea behind the method, Matta believes, is that an often overlooked barrier to development is motivation — that final push to get over the finish line. It was Matta who adapted the method for the realm of development — and strike price put option definition vapid impressive results.

Since its founding inRapid Results has set down roots in more than half a dozen sub-Saharan African countries. Best idea: Incubators and Internet start-ups in Arab countries — channeling the energy of the youth in post- and pre- Arab Spring countries toward productive economic activity. Worst idea: The resurgence of the concept of American exceptionalism in this election season.

About the same — I hope. So far I have not felt the urge to join the tweeters. Ai was released from prison in July after being held for three months on trumped-up tax-evasion charges. But Ai has found ways to occupy his time. The authorities soon pressured him into removing the cameras, evidently preferring that they be the only ones to watch the rotund year-old work on his computer and play with his cats.

But make no mistake — this performance art is deeply political. Throughout his career Ai has insisted that artists have a duty to humanity that strike price put option definition vapid the obligations of nationalism. The artist was not in attendance. In the wake of the Arab Spring, which slashed growth rates across the region as political instability overwhelmed already fragile economies and left nascent democracies struggling to provide basic services like water and sewage treatment, the former French finance minister — who replaced the scandal-ridden Dominique Strauss-Kahn midway through the uprisings — has set about filling the void.

If the Middle East ever emerges from its economic morass, Lagarde and her foresight will deserve more than a little of the credit. But as Erdogan and his cerebral academic turned foreign minister, Ahmet Davutoglu, are discovering, that new leadership comes at a price. Now, Erdogan and Davutoglu face a dilemma on Syria that is all too familiar in Washington: stay on the sidelines or go it alone.

As Davutoglu put it before the U. Best idea: Listen more to your kids. More please… To tweet or not to tweet? Tweeting is for mindless illiterates. Shortly after college, Musk and fellow future billionaire Peter Thiel founded the online payment system that eventually became the now-ubiquitous PayPal. This May, SpaceX launched the first-ever commercial flight to the station.

Musk is also co-founder of Tesla Motorswhich stands a real chance of producing the first economically viable all-electric cars. And his latest passion project is SolarCityan innovative energy company that provides low-cost solar services to businesses and is working to build electric car-charging stations in California — a business idea that came to Musk during a road trip to Burning Man, the annual hippie-meets-Silicon Valley extravaganza. At this rate, it would be foolish to bet against him.

The number that broke the record? Twenty — just 4 percent. As more and more women enter the workplace but remain stubbornly absent from the corner offices, the conversation about female titans of industry has taken on a new urgency, and former Google executives Marissa Mayer and Sheryl Sandberg are at the center of the storm. But it was her comments on why there are too few women in the workplace that helped transform her into a controversial feminist icon for the tech era.

The predictable raging dispute ensued — and is sure to flare back up when she publishes a book on the subject in — but through it all Sandberg has stuck to her pragmatic approach to how women can help themselves get ahead while still getting home for dinner with the kids at least occasionally. Sandberg is certainly strike price put option definition vapid by example: The mother of two young ones holds dual degrees from Harvard University, cut her teeth at the U. For her part, Mayer announced this summer both that she was pregnant and that she was taking the helm of troubled tech behemoth Yahoo.

Disapproval rained down from business elites, who accused her of compromising the health of her company, and from mothers, who accused her of compromising the health of her baby. Two weeks after giving birth to a boy in September, she tweeted that she was back in the office full time and announced a new COO to boot. Between the two execs, the endless compromises and contradictions of the modern working woman were laid bare, prompting a searingly honest debate about women in power at a time when only a handful have made their way to its most exclusive corridors.

Maybe the world is finally beginning to realize that a generation of mothers is going to need to figure out how to get to the top — and stay there. Anne-Marie Slaughter has been a dean at Princeton University and a top official at the U. She has been a passionate advocate for intervention in Syria. And she is an innovative and prolific scholar, arguing in numerous books and articles that the stodgy foreign policy of old is being transformed by the new realities of a networked world.

But it was in another role — as a mom and disaffected global policymaker — that she catapulted herself into the public eye this year. And I wanted to start a conversation. Worst idea: The creation of national intranets and greater global regulation of the Internet through the International Telecommunication Union. More than two decades before U. He has suggested boosting federal aid to state and local governments, providing assistance to homeowners struggling with the deflation of the housing bubble, and having the Federal Reserve buy up government bonds to reduce long-term interest rates.

Thanks to his academic bona fides and slashing style, Krugman — who this year also published a pro-stimulus book, End This Depression Now! As far back asNouriel Roubini saw dangerous speculation in the housing market for what it was: a harbinger of financial Armageddon. At the time, as Paul Krugman No. He was also ahead of the curve in identifying the global reach of the subprime-mortgage crisis and has repeatedly warned against rosy predictions of recovery.

Inwhen the stock market appeared to be turning around, Roubini — dubbed Dr. But Roubini is more than just a bearer of bad news: He has become the gloomy bard of this age of financial upheaval. Every year in Nigeria, roughly 1. That means some 80 percent of Nigerians hoping to pursue higher education are simply out of luck.

His audacious goal is nothing less than to change how the world learns. Reshef, who made his fortune in for-profit supplementary education, does not draw a salary from the university, which has only 10 paid employees; the professors are all volunteers, many from top universities around the world. Although 1, students in countries have been admitted to University of the People, which Reshef founded inthe program is still in the process of applying for accreditation from the U.

But partnerships with heavyweights like Yale Law School, New York University, the Gates Foundation, and the Clinton Global Initiative hint at the outsized impact his idea is likely to have on the world of higher ed. Reshef says University of the People plans to increase enrollment to 5, students by — and then grow indefinitely. Reading list: Woman Flees Tidingsby David Grossman; Thinking, Fast and Slowby Daniel Kahneman; The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities Are Reshaping the Worldby Ben Wildavsky.

Best idea: Using the goodwill of educators in developed countries to educate students in developing countries. Worst idea: To attack Iran. Sincetuition increases at U. But with the arrival of companies like Courseraan online educational consortium founded by Stanford University computer scientists Daphne Koller and Andrew Ng, higher ed is reaching far beyond the privileged few in the ivory tower. Coursera alone is partnered with more than 30 brick-and-mortar universities, including Stanford, the University of Michigan, and Princeton University, and it offers a wide range of courses in engineering, computer science, math, and, increasingly, the humanities.

As of August, it had enrolled more than strike price put option definition vapid million students from countries. This year, for instance, a year-old computer science student from Kazakhstan scored a job at Twitter — after taking an artificial intelligence course at Stanford through Coursera. KOLLER Reading list: Thinking, Fast and Slowby Daniel Kahneman; A Thousand Splendid Sunsby Khaled Hosseini; Nightby Elie Wiesel. Best idea: Increasing U.

Worst idea: Republican attempts to cut support for family planning. Best idea: More Pell grants. Students should not have to choose between paying for college and paying for groceries. Worst idea: Ouster of University of Virginia president. Tweet, and use hashtags wisely. If scaring us silly were a religion, Dick Cheney would be its high priest. The most powerful vice president in U.

But it may be daughter Liz, a former official in George W. Some, like Condoleezza Rice No. An expert on the Soviet Union whose worldview shifted dramatically with the collapse of the Berlin Wall, the woman who became George W. More than anything and very much unlike her dark-side-minded rival, No. After all, Kaspersky was among the first to publicly document the state-sponsored use of cyberweapons, signaling the advent of a new era of war.

His company, Kaspersky Lab, alerted the world to the danger posed by the Stuxnet worm — reportedly developed by the U. Kaspersky is no stranger to controversy. Before co-founding Kaspersky Lab inhe was educated at a technical school sponsored by the KGB, and he spent time working for the Russian military. He has refuted allegations that he still has ties to Russian security services and was working on their behalf to expose U.

Reading list: Why Smart Executives Fail — and What You Can Learn from Their Mistakesby Sydney Finkelstein; Steve Jobsby Walter Isaacson; On Chinaby Henry Kissinger. Best idea: This was a boring year in terms of amazing ideas. Worst idea: Advocating cyberweapons and a cyberarms race. Both — renewal after decline. More, to accelerate science, technology, education, economy, and democracy. Definitely yesif you want and can write. Many lament the plight of women in Afghanistan — Sima Samar has actually done something about it.

Now, ahead of a scheduled U. She has also taken on her own government, loudly criticizing its reliance on Islamic law and cultural norms that force women to wear burqas. Best idea: The impact of social networking. Worst idea: Another war in the region. One person who enthusiastically took up the call was U. Republicans in Congress were decidedly less enthusiastic about the idea. To examine this divergence, Murray devised hypothetical Fishtown and Belmont, the first corresponding to a working-class Philadelphia neighborhood and the second to a wealthy Boston suburb.

In Fishtown, marriage rates plunged from 84 percent to 48 percent between andthe violent crime rate sextupled, and the number of disabled quintupled. But in Belmont, a full 83 percent of the adult population is married and 84 percent of children live with both biological parents. Even some critics of Murray — whose lightning-rod views came to the fore with his controversial book, The Bell Curve — have called Coming Apart a compelling portrait of a new problem that American politics has yet to grapple with.

Best idea: Using a palm scan as a replacement for all computer passwords. If Obama wins, American decline, perhaps abrupt. If Romney wins, perhaps stabilization at best. Monetary union without centralization of fiscal policy was doomed to fail, and Europe is deep in the endgame. For me, it has turned out to be an acquired taste. I have fun with it.

At the top of his list today: a rapidly militarizing and increasingly belligerent China. The details of his blueprint, known as the Air-Sea Battleare classified, but its aim is to coordinate the U. Air Force and Navy more closely in order to respond to future threats to the global commons, not just in potential flash points like the South China Sea but all over the world — even helping the military reach melting ice caps in the Arctic.

A hot war with China, for one, would be one of the most complicated logistical problems in U. We translated every word he wrote. Soon, he could be spending his days behind bars, if President Vladimir Putin has his way. After exposing embezzlement and malfeasance at major state-owned energy companies and banks, he turned to politics more explicitly.

Regularly at the forefront of major demonstrations in Moscow, the blogger has ties to nationalist parties rather than the traditional Western-backed anti-Putin intelligentsia, making him a particularly potent, homegrown threat. MANN Reading list: Our Divided Political Heartby E. Dionne; The New New Dealby Michael Grunwald; Thinking, Fast and Slowby Daniel Kahneman. Best idea: Progressive consumption tax pegged to the state of the economy.

Renewal if we get our republic working effectively once again. ORNSTEIN Reading list: Then Everything Changed: Stunning Alternate Histories of American Politicsby Jeff Greenfield; The New New Dealby Michael Grunwald; The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religionby Jonathan Haidt. Best idea: A lottery prize for voting. Worst idea: We need more permanent tax cuts.

Teetering at the edge, but renewal is more likely. Banned from leaving the country as he awaits his verdict, he faces years in prison if convicted. Although few Saudis are nearly as outspoken, Qahtani hears the rumblings of dissent on the horizon. Best idea: The increasing possibility of political change in Saudi Arabia that will bring about democracy. Worst idea: Stories that still praise tyrannies in Arab countries. Europe will weather the storm. Bahrain, the tiny archipelago wedged between Saudi Arabia and Iran, is the only country where tear gas and buckshot have succeeded so far in squelching an Arab Spring uprising.

And for the ruling monarchy, the brave activists who run the Bahrain Center for Human Rights are Public Enemy No. The center, co-founded in by Nabeel Rajab, Abdulhadi al-Khawaja, and others, played a vital role in advancing the idea that all Bahrainis should be treated equally in this religiously divided kingdom, regardless of their sect.

Best idea: Developing laws that protect people online. Worst idea: Use of drones. RAJAB Reading list: As We Forgive: Stories of Strike price put option definition vapid from Rwandaby Catherine Claire Larson; An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truthby Mohandas Gandhi; Call of Surat history book in Arabic.

Best idea: We got rid of forex trading strategies blog zamkata autocratic tyrants during the Arab Spring. Worst idea: Tribal and sectarian feuds taking over. Less Europe and weaker eurozone. Although his novels are set in his insular native country, Murakami has become something of a patron saint of globalization.

Growing up outside Kobe, Murakami became enamored of American jazz and Western writers, from Dostoyevsky to Vonnegut, Dickens to Capote. He owned a jazz club in Tokyo before turning to the world of fiction, where he is renowned for his genre-bending novels that span different universes yet are littered with real-world cross-cultural references.

The book, which argues forcefully that American decline is a myth and calls for a continued assertive U. Kagan, whose previous big-think book cemented the Bush-era image of a muscular America from Mars and a soft-power Europe from Venus amid the disagreements of the Iraq war, now makes a powerful case that the present international order rests on U.

Obama liked the book so much that he reportedly spent 10 minutes during a meeting with leading media personalities going over an excerpt line by line. Reading list: Breaking the Heart of the Worldby John Milton Cooper; George F. Kennanby John Lewis Gaddis; Berlinby Frederick Kempe. Best idea: Reviving the long-form essay. Worst idea: More social networking. Her efforts to end a popular but economically disastrous fuel subsidy have also so far been slow going.

Some of his predictions — Greece defaulting and exiting the eurozone, for example — have yet to come true. Europe, El-Erian said recently, is simply avoiding the tough decisions that will allow it to recover. And Europe has not dealt with the problem of Greece. Not so Yu Jianrong, the rare Chinese academic who has taken up the challenge of defining how exactly China could change course — and from inside the system.

Best idea: Mo Yan won the Nobel Prize. Worst idea: Political reform in China may be delayed. But should everything be for sale? First, it exacerbates inequality: When more and more goods and services — including health care, education, and political access — strike price put option definition vapid be bought and sold like gold or oil futures, the rich can accumulate them in greater amounts. Second, placing objects and ideas on the free market, Sandel argues, often degrades their social value.

Think, for example, of the growing practice of paying students to read. In our quest to boost test scores, are we recasting learning as a chore rather than a joy? A runaway train is hurtling toward a fork in the track. On one side, Gandhi lies tied to the rails; on the other, two ordinary individuals. Should you save Gandhi or save the two others?

What if 10 people were on the other side? Sandel has also become an international phenomenon and a pioneer in the democratization of a world-class education: His class is now an internationally syndicated television show, making him a minor rock star in China, Japan, and South Korea, where his open-ended teaching style and focus on big questions are far from the norm.

Reading list: The Syrian Rebellionby Fouad Ajami; Strings Attached: Untangling the Ethics of Incentivesby Ruth W. Grant; How Much Is Enough? Money and the Good Lifeby Robert and Edward Skidelsky. John Brennan has been at war with al Qaeda longer than any other top U. Brennan trading di forex mega longer operates only from the shadows. And he has largely won the argument: More than 60 percent of Strike price put option definition vapid support drone strikes to target terrorists abroad.

But far too much of the U. Even as multiple U. Jaffer, who played a central role in challenging the warrantless wiretapping program and use of torture under George W. Best idea: The Arab Spring was a good idea, and still is. Private opulence and public squalor as John K. More would be good, but less is more likely. Tweetbut regret it constantly. That came in sixth. Reading list: Thinking, Fast and Slowby Daniel Kahneman; Sustainable Energy — Without the Hot Airby David MacKay; The Haves and the Have-Nots: A Brief and Idiosyncratic History of Global Inequalityby Branko Milanovic.

Worst idea: Predictions that million people would die from global warming by — turned out it was exaggerated more than fold, to get attention. His ambition is nothing less than the remapping of power dynamics in the Arab world. Qatar is home to one of the largest U. In one leaked diplomatic cablehe told U. Trust only one of the He has also unveiled a mini-Marshall Plan for the post-Arab Spring world, pledging billions of dollars in aid and investment to Egypt, Tunisia, Yemen, and Gaza.

And he has the ear of top U. James Mattis, head of U. But, perhaps more than any other military scholar, he has pressed civilian leaders to think deeply about how they articulate strategy, while urging military leaders to wrestle with their role in implementing it. He argues that since the s, the U. Ricks; And the Land Lay Stillby James Robertson; War from the Ground Upby Emile Simpson. Best idea: Reintroducing the idea of victory in counterinsurgency.

Worst idea: Bombing Iran. Decline unless the U. Metatrader software sig trader 4 forex Haqqani and Farahnaz Ispahani have spent their careers fighting the slow-motion radicalization of Pakistan — even as it became increasingly obvious that the deck was stacked against them. Ispahani, meanwhile, has tried to push Pakistan toward a frank discussion of its internal demons. Dobson; The World America Madeby Robert Kagan. Best idea: Containment of totalitarian Islamism.

Worst idea: Leading from behind. Tweetbut only meaningfully and with purpose. ISPAHANI Reading list: Ideas of a Nationby Maulana Abul Kalam Azad; Silenced: How Apostasy and Blasphemy Codes Are Choking Freedom Worldwideby Paul Marshall and Nina Shea; Realizing Human Rights: Moving from Inspiration to Impactedited by Samantha Power and Graham Allison. Best idea: Using social media to defeat the overwhelming presence of jihadi extremists on social media.

Worst idea: Not intervening in Syria immediately with the backing of the international community. Europe with all its issues is still a more reliable partner than any others. Will prevent a resurgent Russia. So many ideas emerge; so many conversations with ordinary people, intellectuals, and voiceless groups happen on Twitter and only on Twitter.

Her place there strike price put option definition vapid secured by strike price put option definition vapid relentless and prolific dedication to the novel proposition that we should subject our wishful thinking about how to help poor people to cold, hard analyses of whether those ideas actually work. This year, for example, Duflo and two colleagues released a study debunking the oft-touted saving graces of Western-designed cookstoves.

Contradicting previous laboratory results, a four-year trial in one Indian state found no evidence that families that received the stoves had improved lung function or reduced their fuel consumption. You think hard about the problems and you can solve them. On March 11,tsunami waves from the worst earthquake Japan had ever seen slammed the island country. Some 15, people died;buildings collapsed; and three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in eastern Japan suffered a full meltdown, spewing radiation into the air and tainting a mile radius of surrounding area.

In the national debate that followed, the Japanese government commissioned three major reports to determine what happened. Best idea: Critical importance of human wisdom. Worst idea: Continuing greed. The duo has also launched a blog to apply their thesis to everything from the eurozone crisis to sexual repression in North Korea.

Along the way, Acemoglu and Robinson are making people think again and again about geopolitics. ACEMOGLU Reading list: Haiti: The Aftershocks of Historyby Laurent Dubois; Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: The Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africaby Jason Stearns; The Evolution of Godby Robert Wright. Best idea: A growth pact for Europe.

Worst idea: A growth pact for Europe based on just carrying on with business as usual. Best idea: To have the World Bank led by someone who actually has a track record in solving the problems of poor people in developing countries. Worst idea: CIVETS Colombia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey, South Africa as favored emerging markets. The concept was generally received as intriguing but infeasible. Free trade zones and low-cost maquiladora factories are one thing, but what government would ever voluntarily let another country enforce laws on its territory?

In just the past year, the longtime Silicon Valley attorney, who previously represented Google as it redefined intellectual property law for the search era, has contested attempts by the Indian government to shut down accounts, fought a U. Four years later, the United States and the major economies of the European Union are growing anemically, if at all. The investing world has seen the Chinas and Indias as practically the only bright spots of global growth.

According to Ruchir Sharma, however, the golden age for these up-and-comers is fast coming to a close. Best idea: The abundance of oil. Worst idea: Another marketing acronym for which countries will do well: MIST Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, and Turkey. A giant of contemporary African letters for more than half a century, Chinua Achebe is still best known for his novel, Things Fall Apartwhich drew on oral traditions to tell the story of a Nigerian village transformed by colonialism and Western-imposed Christianity.

Achebe had taken the Biafran side in the conflict, which left more than 1 million people dead, and served as a roving international ambassador for the breakaway government, narrowly escaping Nigerian attacks on multiple occasions. In my view it was a cataclysmic experience that changed the history of Africa. The air forex proprietary trading toronto kpop like glue. Synthetic eggs and pigs pumped full of growth hormones and cooked in oil made of recycled sewage feature on menus across the country.

His method: diligently and painstakingly collecting evidence of companies behaving badly to try to shame them into compliance. A journalist turned environmentalist who founded the Beijing-based Institute of Public and Environmental AffairsMa applies scientific rigor to exposing such corporate violations more than 90, to dateflagging everything from a small coal-tar factory improperly storing its dangerous waste to Apple suppliers poisoning workers with a toxic chemical used on touch screens — as well as local governments that flout environmental regulations across China.

And by documenting environmental violations that had long been obvious but were never compiled in a way the public could easily understand, Ma has given statistical ammunition to Chinese citizens trying to nudge the Communist Party into cleaning up its act. Yevgenia Chirikova had never been involved in politics beforewhen she noticed red paint on the trees of the Khimki forest outside Moscow, where she enjoyed taking walks with her family.

When she learned that a wide swath of the forest was due to be razed for the construction of a highway, she did something almost inconceivable in Russian political culture: She got organized. A strike price put option definition vapid businesswoman with her own engineering company, Chirikova soon proved an effective activist, organizing protests and blogging her struggle to save the forest. Chirikova was jailed multiple times, and at one point officials threatened to take away her children on trumped-up neglect charges.

And Chirikova, who helped organize the protests and recently challenged the ruling United Russia party in local elections she lostbut alleged voter fraudwas way ahead of the curve. During the Putin era, the public faces of the Russian opposition have typically been intellectuals, ex-politicians, or tycoons. With Chirikova, who runs her campaign out of a tiny basement beside a fruit and vegetable store, Russian activists have a more accessible symbol: an ordinary woman with unusual determination fighting to save her home.

Reading list: Anton Chekhov short stories and novels reread ; Hot, Flat, and Crowded: Why We Need a Green Revolution — and How It Can Renew Americaby Thomas Friedman. Best idea: Preserving the view from your own window, the small motherland each of us has. Smart America will realize it is time to walk away from the idea of consuming society and become a responsible society.

The Arab Spring demonstrated that even when people do not starve, they still go to protest, because they are unhappy about the regimes in their countries. If they can do it, why cannot we? We saw that the square can be real, that we also can come out and demand changes. Before, people were too scared to demonstrate their views. We have had negative experience with coups and rallies in the past. We remember the shooting at the White House in Moscow. We still mourn dozens of victims.

This year, Paul also held up a government-funding bill and several ambassadorial confirmations in an effort to cut foreign aid to Egypt, Libya, and Pakistan. Consulate in Benghazi, Libya. Her prescription is simple: sensible fiscal cutbacks plus policies that encourage growth — the tried-and-true methods of breaking down barriers to trade, investment, and innovation. In a bit of role reversal for an official from a former Dutch colony, Sri Mulyani has also dispensed words of wisdom to debt-saddled Europe: Countries like Greece and Spain should get strike price put option definition vapid balance sheets in order and then worry about building up their economies, she says — but the two go hand in hand.

Call it the Indonesian model. A gifted writer and the former director of the Institute of International Strategic Studies at the Central Party School, the most prestigious training institution for Communist Party officials, Wang has both the ability and, crucially, the permission to demystify Chinese views. What does Wang want us to know? That the feel-good stories U.

Or maybe a nice gift for the holidays? That figure, it turns out, is the amount of extra income the students of an average-sized U. As a sophomore, he caught the eye of legendary economist Martin Feldstein No. With an already hefty list of findings like these, Chetty is at the forefront of the growing field of behavioral public finance, using hard data to track how economic policy affects individual behavior and social welfare. In a year when Iran and Israel seemed to grow more aggressive by the day, Farhadi elegantly articulated the basic shared humanity of peoples across borders, even on the brink of war.

The means are as grisly as they are varied, but the reason is nearly always the same — a willingness to report on cartel violence and corruption in the Mexican government. As a result, self-censorship has become rampant among journalists across Mexico, but Adela Navarro Bello is a striking exception. The editor of the Tijuana weekly ZetaNavarro leads one of the few remaining publications that prides itself on investigative work into the drug war and the associated miasma of corruption and incompetence.

For Navarro and her staff, the stakes could hardly be higher. Where are their investments? Reading list: The Invention of Solitude strike price put option definition vapid, by Paul Auster; To Each His Ownby Leonardo Sciascia; Confessions of a Young Novelistby Umberto Eco. Best idea: Rich people paying more taxes. Worst idea: Restricting Internet content. Many viewed it as one of the most dysfunctional corners of a country world famous for government dysfunction.

Much of that began to change, however, when a low-key bureaucrat from a local center-left party, Nitish Kumar, won the election and set out to clean up a wasteland where million people are squeezed into a territory smaller than Arkansas. In his two terms in office, he has done just that, relying on an array of innovative programs to crack down on crime, shame corrupt public officials, and boost economic development. A law passed last year allows the government to take control of ill-gotten land and, unless the owner is cleared in court, use it for schools and health clinics.

For making the web safe for whistleblowers. Founders, Tor Project Walpole, Mass. But researchers Roger Dingledine, Nick Mathewson, and Paul Syverson could already see trouble on the horizon. Created in a U. The free software, now relied on by hundreds of thousands of users daily, bounces information through the computers of 3, volunteers around the world, hiding the identity of the original user.

State Department and the National Science Foundation, Tor allows people who otherwise might be silenced online — whether corporate whistleblowers or domestic-violence victims — to bring important information to light. It has become an especially critical tool over the last two years as activists and journalists from Bahrain to Syria find themselves the targets of increasingly tech-savvy tyrants. Best idea: Holding Western corporations accountable for selling censorship and surveillance tools to dictators.

Decline, unless we can solve the strike price put option definition vapid influence on our government. Either, but pick one. MATHEWSON Reading list: Homestuck webcomic in progressby Andrew Hussie; The Better Angels of Our Natureby Steven Pinker; Overcoming Bias blog. Best idea: Cryptopartiesthough the execution still needs work. Some of each; European unity is not a single axis.

Yesif you have a good number of character ideas. The leading military strategist, whose book, Supreme Commandmade it onto President George Strike price put option definition vapid. Reading list: Defend the Realm: The Authorized History of MI5by Christopher Andrew; Essaysby William Hazlitt; Thinking, Fast and Slowby Daniel Kahneman.

Worst idea: That we should consider suppressing free speech at home to mollify Salafi mobs abroad. Depends on what Americans choose. The more of an artificially unified European polity, the less there will be of a Europe worth having. Not on your life. At a time when we read less widely and deeply, and write less cleverly and precisely than in previous times, why make ourselves even more vapid than we already are?

In the United States, where Raghuram Rajan lived and worked for years as a professor at the University of Chicago and chief economist at the IMF, he is known primarily as one of the guys who saw it coming. In a paper — widely derided by his colleagues at the time — Rajan warned that financial markets were encouraging irresponsible speculation that could lead to a major crash. He would be vindicated three years later.

Rajan argues that India has been coasting off the dividends from economic reforms passed in the s as its politicians have gotten lazy, giving away government funding to politically influential groups while failing to make the investments in energy and infrastructure that could help India reach the next level of growth. Reading list: The Years of Lyndon Johnson: The Path to Powerby Robert Caro; Life and Fateby Vasily Grossman; A Game of Thronesby George R.

The design world has long been preoccupied with dreaming up ever sleeker cars, laptops, smartphones, and even kitchen gadgets. Martin is creative director and Wyatt executive director of IDEO. In Kenya, where only 61 percent of the population has access to clean water, IDEO. Wyatt, a development expert, is the business brains behind IDEO.

The wealthy have Apple iPads to handle their information overload and Herman Miller ergonomic chairs for their aching backs. MARTIN Reading list: Thinking, Fast and Slowby Daniel Kahneman; What Is the Whatby Dave Eggers; Cutting for Stoneby Abraham Verghese. Worst idea: The offensive YouTube video, Innocence of Muslims. Brutal dictators, sectarian divisions, political repression.

These are among the messy and unpredictable causes oft cited for modern-day conflicts. Kaplan reminds us that other, more elemental factors are still often at play: mountains, rivers, even soil types. Presidential aides said it helped convince Clinton against initially intervening in the Balkans. Flash forward 17 years and 11 more books. Now, in The Revenge of GeographyKaplan synthesizes his canon of geographic writings to show how landscapes and climates still shape our world. Best idea: We need to return to the bipartisan realism of the likes of the elder Bush administration.

Worst idea: Obama is a foreign-policy disaster. Both, as the EU will compete with Russia and Turkey for influence in Central Europe and the Balkans. If we could all only stop. That may be why he has also started a popular education website encouraging Chinese students to think more creatively. Reading list: Steve Jobsby Walter Isaacson; The Lean Startupby Eric Ries; Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of Chinaby Ezra Vogel.

American renewal, because American innovation cannot be challenged yet. To tweetbut people need more expressiveness than characters. Chinese people tweet about five times more information in Chinese characters, and the quality, usage, and impact show the difference. President Barack Obama issued a memorandum on his first full day in office to make government more transparent and open, it was no coincidence he tapped Beth Noveck to lead the unprecedented initiative.

Noveck, an open-government pioneer who made a cause of crowdsourcing experts to help the overloaded U. Patent and Trademark Office review all those innovative patent applications, not only took the job, but she used it to draft open-government rules for federal agencies with input from Internet users and launch data. But if the initiatives she has set in motion — from the National Archives dashboard for citizen archivists to the Department of Health and Human Services website for comparing insurance options — are any indication, Noveck has arguably done more than anyone to lay the foundations for a Washington that feels less like a cloistered village and more like an online public square.

Reading list: A Moveable Feastby Ernest Hemingway; Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Ageby Steven Johnson; Honeybee Democracyby Thomas Seeley. Best idea: The National Endowment for the Arts should become more like Kickstarter. Worst idea: That Kickstarter should replace the National Endowment for the Arts.

More innovative European cities. Less agile and capable nation-states. Early and often: bethnoveck. And Foreign Minister Radoslaw Sikorski has taken up the mission of delivering hard truths to governments that need to hear it. Best idea: Rewarding bankers in proportion to capital they create, rather than debt. Worst idea: The UK leaving the EU.

Renewal, in a form of reinventing itself. To tweetof course. In From the Ruins of Empirehe looks back at the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when much of Asia was still wrestling with the ideological influence of its colonizers. Binary frameworks like this, he says, show just how unaware East and West are of their history — both shared and, more importantly, not. In the wake of the Arab uprisings, which simultaneously swept Islamists to power and brought new democracies into being in much of the Middle East, Arab countries are grappling with how to reconcile Islamic tradition with freedom, gender equality, and human rights — ideas that many perceive as alien imports from the West.

These are precisely the questions with which Tariq Ramadan, a professor of Islamic studies at Oxford University and the grandson of Muslim Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Banna, has spent his career wrestling. Islam, he argues, is not inherently anti-Western; the two can be reconciled. Best and worst idea: To run for the Egyptian presidency! He found his inspiration in the coffeehouses and cafes of an earlier era in European history and, incoined his most famous concept: communicative rationality, the idea that the very process of talking and arguing produces agreement.

But the current crisis in Europe has beaten the optimism out of Habermas. And as the eurozone economy imploded, the nationalism that strike price put option definition vapid European Union was supposed to suppress came roaring back, with parties across the continent dabbling in a potent brew of racism and Islamophobia that has turned right-wing extremism into a political growth industry. In his new book, The Crisis of the European UnionHabermas lays out a case for a more cosmopolitan Europe that more fully transcends its national borders, where political power vested in an EU government elected by the people of Europe would foster the kind of cross-border solidarity that the crisis has so clearly exposed as lacking.

It is a bold vision of a pan-European democracy that would effectively end state sovereignty and foster a unity that no market force could undermine. Patel, a Canadian who spent his career working as an analyst in conflict zones such as Afghanistan and Sierra Leone, modeled Avaaz after the liberal advocacy group MoveOn.

Worst idea: Saudi vision of expanded Gulf Cooperation Council to team up against the Arab Spring. Corrupt plutocratic decline or progressive democratic renewal. But of the right kind — people-driven, people centered. To each his own. But immigrants have such a difficult time entering the United States that for the first time in decades, immigrant entrepreneurship has stalled. According to a study by entrepreneur Vivek Wadhwa — which he turned into a book this year, The Immigrant Exodus: Why America Is Losing the Global Race to Capture Entrepreneurial Talent — even as the number of immigrants in the United States has risen, the percentage of immigrant-founded companies has hardly budged from the 25 percent it was at in ; in Silicon Valley the numbers fell from 52 percent to 44 percent.

Otherwise, Wadhwa says, the skilled immigrants will be long gone. Reading list: Abundance: The Future Is Better Than You Thinkby Peter Diamandis and Steven Kotler; Startup Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Your Cityby Brad Feld; The Lean Startupby Eric Ries. With cheap, pure water, we can dramatically reduce the incidence of disease and illness in the developing world. And we can reduce the likelihood that wars will break out over water shortages.

Worst idea: When you live in Silicon Valley, you come across an abundance of bad ideas. One idea is worse than the next! Entrepreneurs are still trying to build more Facebooks and Twitters. We live in the most innovative period in human history. Social media has become part of the fabric of modern society. You need to be on it or be left out. Federal agencies from the CIA to the Defense Department have launched initiatives based on the concept.

Will data analytics help us understand online communities and political movements? Or will it be used to track protesters and suppress speech? Reading list: Communication Powerby Manuel Castells; Ready Player Oneby Ernest Cline; Republic, Lost: How Money Corrupts Congress — and a Plan to Stop Itby Lawrence Lessig. Worst idea: I am still dumbfounded that anyone could possibly believe that raped women have biological mechanisms that prevent them from getting pregnant and, therefore, any woman who does get pregnant must have secretly enjoyed being raped.

Relative to other countries, American decline, but when measured locally, American renewal. More countries in the eurozone? More European influence on other countries? Perhaps in some domains. That is the question. I tweet because I am committed to the dissemination of information and the production of knowledge in the hope that doing so will benefit others. With intellectual influences ranging from Karl Marx to French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan to the films of Alfred Hitchcock and the Matrix trilogy, Slavoj Zizek has emerged over the past two decades as a modern rarity: a celebrity philosopher, appearing everywhere from op-ed pages to cable-news debates to your local art-house movie theater.

At a time of capitalism in crisis, Zizek has proved that the hard strike price put option definition vapid can still offer valuable critiques of current events and contemporary culture — even as the left itself has often been the subject of his withering criticism. Zizek, who holds professorships at the University of Ljubljana and the European Graduate School in Switzerland, is an almost absurdly prolific writer of dozens of books, including four just this year on subjects ranging from the global financial crisis to Hegel.

No, 99 percent are boring idiots. But in an ever-more-absurd world, that might be just what we need. Best idea: The big revolution the left is waiting for will never come. Worst idea: The nation-state is back. We should support it against the global market. Neither, things just dragging on. Not, loss of time. In the area of religious toleration, I hope for renewal; in the area of social justice, I hope for renewal but predict decline; in the area of education, similarly, I hope for renewal but am skeptical about whether it will occur.

But that is only part of the story. But these physical processes can also work against Wall Street traders. These are qualities that have helped humans overcome risky situations for millennia, but on Wall Street, Coates argues, our primal instincts can backfire. Conversely, when losses increase, a different hormone, cortisol, begins to build up. That stress hormone contributes to the irrational pessimism that can turn a market downturn into a full-fledged crash. The solution, Coates suggests, is simple: Hire more women and older men on trading floors and end the practice of massive bonuses for short-term profits.

Best idea: None come to mind. Worst idea: Too many come to mind. Ahead of the summit, authoritarian countries such as China and Russia have expressed support for international standards in the name of cybersecurity — raising concerns that human rights will be trampled and the Internet shackled. Is Internet access a human right?

How do we respect the rights of the unwitting people who become the subject of Internet memes? Is it legal for an insurance company to set rates for its customers based on GPS data? And he has addressed his own questions by helping establish the OpenNet Initiativewhich monitors Internet surveillance around the world, and Chilling Effectswhich posts legal complaints about online activity.

In May, is forex legal in egypt U. Best idea: Dealing with cybersecurity problems through technically facilitated mutual aid among many participants, rather than solely top-down mandates or rigid best practices. Worst idea: Rioting over a YouTube video. With a link to a more thorough blog entry and a willingness to tweet later corrections. Runaway debt and ballooning entitlements, he arguesare merely symptoms of a debilitating disease: widespread collusion between politicians and big business.

In his new book, A Capitalism for the PeopleZingales contends that the Republican Party abandoned its pro-market principles under George W. Bush and instead became pro-big business, courting companies with tariffs and tax breaks rather than building a competitive marketplace. In the wake of the global recession, faith in the free market has plunged in countries such as Italy and Spain and declined in the United States, albeit less sharply. Nearly 40 percent of Americans believe their country has a system of crony capitalism, while seven in 10 think government and big business are working together against them.

In that sense, his ringing denunciation is the Capitalism and Freedom of our time. Best idea: Debt restructuring for Greece. Worst idea: Another stimulus plan for America. Hoping a renewal, fearing a decline. Among the largest companies in the European Union, women held just This year, that figure is all of The proposal called for large companies to give at least 40 percent of their supervisory board positions to women by In the United States, women filled a grand total of 16 percent of board seats at Fortune companies in A native of Luxembourg and ex-journalist, Reding insists that giving women greater decision-making powers is not only a matter of fairness but also would be a boon for the economy.

Having women on corporate boards corresponds to higher profits, she arguesand a standardized policy would make intra-European business easier. Unsurprisingly, she faces entrenched opposition. The law was shot down amid legal concerns in October, though Reding vowed to put forward a modified version. Why is it that poor Americans might vote against their apparent economic self-interest and pull the lever for a candidate like Mitt Romney?

A leading member of a new generation of psychologists applying the insights of evolutionary theory to morality, Haidt argues that we form political opinions not through simple reasoning but based on moral preferences humans have developed to reinforce ties to larger groups or tribes. He identifies six values that form the baseline of any moral system: care, fairness, liberty, loyalty, authority, and sanctity. Using experiments, ethnographies, and surveys of tens of thousands of people around the world, he demonstrates that both left- and right-leaning people respond positively to the first three values, though the left-leaning place greater emphasis on care and fairness.

Conservatives, meanwhile, emphasize loyalty, authority, and sanctity. Both groups value liberty but consider it threatened by different oppressors. The right wing, Haidt posits, simply has a greater number of moral taste buds. By stepping back and dispassionately examining the deeper origin of our disunion, he also offers hope that we can achieve something more — a wisdom that transcends brute moral emotions. Start new cities with good norms and institutions, rather than trying to change old and corrupt ones.

Decline for a while, until we can reboot our institutions and efficiency and reduce corruption and cronyism. Europe does not have a strong enough shared identity to manage a union among unequals. If the weaker nations drop out, a Europe of wealthy and efficient equals can survive. I see it as a public good. Peter Beinart, former editor of the New Republictook on both this year with his explicitly controversial new book, The Crisis of Zionism.

It will take people like Sana Saleem, a year-old activist and blogger in Pakistan who is waging her own private campaign against government censorship, to push back. Despite threats and offensive taunts on Twitter, Saleem and her partners eventually shamed the government into shelving the proposal. She is still fighting for an official court injunction. Reading list: The Moslems Are Coming: Encounters with a Desktop Terroristby Azad Essa; The New Rulers of the Worldby John Pilger; Consent of the Networkedby Rebecca MacKinnon.

Best idea: Last year, but still unmatched : raiding an office used for spying on civilians, reclaiming your private data, and exposing the criminals. Worst idea: Pakistan advertising its plans to censor 20 million people. More Europeans in Pakistan. Think before you tweet. Access up to 5 articles a month free. Subscribers — Register to. Sign up now for. Act now — this monthly offer is only available via this message! Your FP All Access subscription is provided by US Department of State, Bunche Library.

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