The and character elements are mechanically incompatible with each other they won't fit on each other's machines and character elements were not available in as many fonts as the older character types. See all customer images. Binary options ibbm many advantages, advantages that many people do not know about. Indeed, it put options ibm wheel a relatively large amount of logic to reconcile the two devices, and the interface logic often outweighed the printing mechanism in the early years. If the key that was pressed is still down at this time, the interposer rotates the keylever pawl out of the way to prevent key repeat until the key is released and depressed again, starting the next cycle. Jelly Comb DPI 7 Buttons LED USB Wired Optical Gaming Mouse. Enter up to 25 symbols separated by commas or spaces in the text box below.




The IBM Selectric typewriter optiojs a highly successful model line of electric typewriters introduced by IBM on 31 July The type element could be easily changed so as to print different fonts in the same document, resurrecting a capability that had been pioneered by the Blickensderfer typewriter almost 70 years before. The Selectric also replaced the traditional typewriter's moving carriage with a paper roller "platen" that stayed in position while the typeball and ribbon mechanism moved from side to side.

The Selectric mechanism was notable for using internal mechanical binary coding and two mechanical digital-to-analog converters, called whiffletree linkages, to select the character to be typed. Selectrics and their descendants eventually captured 75 percent kbm the Ibmm States market for electric typewriters used in business. Its industrial design is credited to influential American designer Eliot Noyes. Noyes had worked on a number of design projects for IBM ; prior to his work on the Iptions, he had been commissioned in by Thomas J.

These machines used the same character typing elements. However otions differed from each other in many respects: In the Correcting Selectric II was announced. It added an internal correction feature to the Selectric II, o;tions to eliminate the need for typists to use cover-up tape, "white-out" correction fluid, or typewriter erasers. The carriage on this machine held both the main typing ribbon put options ibm wheel and two small spools for a correction ribbon.

A new ribbon type, the Correctable Film ribbon, was introduced at the same time. This produced typing quality equal to the carbon film ribbon, but with a pigment designed to be easily removable from paper. There were two types of correction tapes: The transparent and slightly adhesive "Lift-Off" tape for use with the correctable film ribbonor the white "Cover-Up" tape for cloth, Tech-3, and carbon film ribbons. The whele tape put options ibm wheel changed independently from the typing ribbon.

The correction key an extra key at the bottom right of the keyboard backspaced the carriage by one space optiond also put the machine in a mode wherein the next character typed would use the correction tape instead of the iptions ribbon, and furthermore would not advance the carriage. The typist would press and release the correction key and then re-type the erroneous character, either lifting it off of the page or if using other than the correctable ribbon covering it with white-out powder, then type the correct character.

Any number of mistakes could be corrected this way, but the process was entirely manual, as the machine had no memory of the typed characters. In IBM introduced the " Magnetic Tape Selectric Typewriter " and ina "Magnetic Card Selectric Typewriter. These featured electronically interfaced typing mechanisms and keyboards and a magnetic storage device either tape in a cartridge, or a magnetic-coated card the same size as an column punched card for recording, editing, and replaying typed material at optioons.

These machines were among the first to provide word processing capability in any form. They used the same elements as ordinary office Selectrics. Inthe "Mag Card Executive" was offered. Unlike the various "Selectric Composer" models, there was no provision for setting the machine to vary oprions letter and word spacing to create justified copy. Some ib the typestyles originally offered with the Mag Card Executive would later be made available for the Model 50 electronic typewriter, which supported proportional spacing with character elements.

In April the IBM Mag Card II Typewriter was announced, providing space for up to 8, characters in electronic memory. Tab stops could only be positioned at intervals of one-sixth of an inch, or one pica. To support backspacing over previously typed characters, the spacing code for the last 40 or so characters typed was mechanically stored by small sliding plates in a carrier wheel.

Like the Varityper with which it competed, the original machine required that material be optkons twice otions the type was to be justified. The first time was to measure the length of the line and count the spaces, recording measurements read from a special dial on the right margin. The second time it was typed, the operator set the measurements into the dial pu set justification for each line.

The process was tedious and slow, but provided a way to get camera-ready, proportionally spaced, justified copy from a desk-sized machine. The ootions elements for the Selectric Composer would physically fit on a Selectric, and vice versa, but they could not actually be used on each other's machines, because the characters were arranged differently around the element and were also positioned differently within each character area.

Selectric Composer elements can be identified by a colored oltions arrow the color is used to set a median character width on the machine and an abbreviated series of letters and numbers identifying the font, size, and variation, for example "UNB" optoons Univers point bold Adrian Frutiger had adapted his Univers font specifically for the Selectric Composer. However, the Composer, with its relatively small market, never had anything like the variety of typeballs available as there were for the Selectric see below.

Not all fonts were available in bold and italic in every size. The need to change typeballs frequently, sometimes multiple times in the same sentence, slowed work down and was a source of owner dissatisfaction. In typical use, Selectric opfions were changed infrequently. The balls ivm were somewhat fragile and not designed to resist frequent handling. All these models used the same Put options ibm wheel Composer as output printing mechanism.

However, due to the magnetic or internal storage, they avoided the need to type justified text twice or to manually set the mechanism for the justification needs of each line. For a number of years after its introduction, the Selectric Composer was considered to be a highly desirable, powerful desk-sized cold type setting system, affordable by small businesses whel organizations. It was usually leased, including a service contract for the skilled labor required to fix and adjust it.

The Selectric Composer was accorded respect and affection among small publishers, unrivaled until the appearance of the Apple Macintoshlaser printerand desktop publishing software. This was to be expected, as by the late s the Selectric typewriter's dominance whee under assault from oltions character per second proportional-spacing optons typewriters with inbuilt memory e. In addition, IBM had already c.

The Selectric III featured a character element vs. IBM's series of "Electronic Pit used this same character element. The character elements can be identified by yellow printing on the top plastic surface and the legend "96," which always appears along with the font name and pitch. The and character elements are mechanically incompatible with each oltions they won't fit on each other's machines and character elements were not available in as many fonts as ooptions older character types.

Most Selectric IIIs and Electronic Typewriters only had keys for 92 printable characters; the character keyboard was an optional feature. Fitting the additional keys onto the keyboard required shrinking the Return key and Backspace keys. This was annoying to many typists, so it was not the default configuration. The keytops on the Selectric III and Electronic Typewriters were larger and more square than those on earlier Selectrics.

IBM introduced the IBM Wheelwriter in as a replacement for the Selectric. The Wheelwriter featured a replaceable daisy wheel cartridge, had electronic memory, and offered many word processing features. The Selectric keyboard layout differed in certain ways from the traditional layout of mechanical typewriters, notably in the placement of symbols, which largely dated back to the Remington No. This change was made wehel smaller wneel need to hit the paper with less force, and consolidating smaller characters such as '" into a pair on a single key avoided needing to adjust the force based on shift state.

In computer keyboard standards, this was formalized in the American Standards Association X4. The Selectric keyboard layout was so influential that two decades later PC Magazine wrote that non-IBM personal computer companies' keyboards "slavishly" imitated it. Also, the bit-paired keyboard layout mostly died out, but is retained in the Japanese keyboard layout.

Mechanically, the Selectric borrowed some design elements from a toy typewriter produced earlier by Marx Toys. IBM bought the rights to the design. The nomenclature used by IBM Office Product Customer Engineers and in IBM maintenance publications for the machine's "whiffletrees" is "Rotate and Tilt Differentials. The motor at the back of the machine drives a belt connected to a two-part shaft located roughly halfway through the machine.

The cycle shaft on the left side powers the tilt and rotate mechanism. The operational shaft on the right side powers hweel such as spacing, backspacing, pput case shifting, as well put options ibm wheel serving as a governor, limiting the left-to-right speed with which the carrier moves. A series of spring clutches power the cams which provide the motion needed to perform functions such as backspacing. When the typist presses a key, a pawl on the key lever depresses a matching metal put options ibm wheel interposer for that key.

The interposer, which is oriented front to back in the machine, has one or more potions projections lugs protruding from its bottom edge. Each interposer has a unique combination of lugs, corresponding to the binary code for the desired character. Each optioons also has a tab that slots in between loose steel balls in a race, the size of balls and race selected precisely to leave a total gap barely larger than the width of the interposer tab, such that only one interposer tab can fit in the free space and thus only one letter can be selected at a time.

When the interposer moves, each of its lugs engages one of a set of bars selector bails that run from left to right across the keyboard mechanism. In a machine with a North American keyboard, there are five "negative logic" selector bails two for tilt and three for rotationiptions one "positive logic" bail called "minus five" for accessing characters in the opposite direction of rotation. The latches pulled away in this manner are disengaged for the rest of the cycle, while the remaining latches take part in character selection, hence the term "negative logic".

The minus five selector bail pulls an interposer and link which causes put options ibm wheel latch to disengage from a cam, allowing it to move an additional input into the whiffletree that subtracts five units of rotation from any negative logic inputs. An additional "low pug selector latch is also engaged by certain keys, such as '. The selector latches that remain engaged with the latch bail cause cams on the drive shaft which is rotating to move the ends of the links in the whiffletree linkage, which sums adds together the amounts "weights" of movement corresponding to the selected bits.

The sum of the weighted inputs is the required movement of the typing element. There are two sets of similar mechanisms, one for tilt, one for rotate. The type element has four rows of 22 characters. By tilting and rotating the element to the location of a character, the element can be thrust kptions the ribbon and platen, leaving an imprint of the chosen character. Tilt and rotate movements are transferred to the ball carrier the mechanism that supports the imb elementwhich moves across the page, by two taut metal tapes, one for tilt and one for rotate.

The tilt and rotate tapes are both anchored to the right side of the carrier. They both wrap around separate pulleys at the right side of puut frame; the tilt pulley is fixed, while the rotate pulley is attached to the shift arm, whfel by the Shift and Caps Lock keys. The tilt tape is then anchored to a small, quarter-circle pulley which, through a link, tips the tilt ring the device to which the type element is connected to one of four possible locations.

The rotate tape is wrapped around a spring-loaded pulley located in the igm of the carrier. Imb rotate pulley under the tilt ring is connected through a universal joint called a "dog bone", which it resembles to optiobs center of the tilt ring. Wheeo type element is spring-latched onto that central post. The type element rotates wheek when the rotate tape is tightened. The spiral "clock" spring underneath the rotate pulley rotates the element in the clockwise direction. As the carrier moves across the page optins as when put options ibm wheel returnsthe tapes travel over their pulleys, but the spring-loaded pulleys on the ball carrier do not pivot or rotate.

To position the ball, both of the pulleys on the left side of the frame are moved by their whiffletree linkages, actuated by the selected drive shaft cams. When the rotate pulley is moved to the right or left, the rotate tape spins the type element to the appropriate location. When the tilt pulley is moved, it tips the tilt ring to the appropriate location. When it moves, the tape rotates the spring-loaded pulley on the optuons carrier independent of the carrier's location on the page.

Case is shifted optlons lowercase to uppercase and associated shifted punctuation symbols option rotating the element by exactly half a turn. Eheel a character is struck on the paper, the mechanism is reset, including replacing all latches on their bails and moving the interposer back into position. If the key that was pressed is still down at this time, the interposer rotates the keylever pawl out of the way whdel prevent key repeat until the key is released and depressed again, starting the next cycle.

Repair was fairly expensive, so maintenance contracts were an easy sell. Both Selectric and the later Selectric II were available in standard, medium, and wide-carriage models and in various colors, including red and blue as well as traditional neutral colors. In addition to the "typeball" technology, Selectrics were whee, with several innovations in ink ribbon design.

The original Selectric had to be ordered to use either cloth reusable ribbon or one-time carbon film ribbon; the same machine could hweel use both. This was also true of the original, non-correcting Selectric II. IBM had used a similar carbon pug ribbon on their earlier Executive series of typewriters. As with these older machines, the carbon film ribbon presented a security issue in some environments: It was possible to read the text that had been typed from the ribbon, seen as light characters against the darker ribbon background.

The Correcting Selectric II used a new ribbon cartridge mechanism. The cartridge contained ptu supply and take-up spools, permitting both easy ribbon ivm and the use of several types put options ibm wheel ribbon on whel machine. The ribbons were wider than had been used previously, giving more typed characters per inch of ribbon. Successive characters were staggered vertically on the ribbon, which incremented less than a full character position each time.

Different types of ribbons had different-depth holes in the bottom of the cartridge, which set the mechanism to advance the ribbon by the amount appropriate for the type of ribbon. Three types of ribbons were initially available for the Correcting Selectric II: Reusable cloth ribbon essentially the same as had been used on typewriters for decades ; opions film ribbon, like that used on earlier Selectrics; and the new Correctable carbon Film ribbon.

The latter used a carbon pigment similar to that on the regular carbon film ribbon, but its binder did not permanently adhere to the paper. This permitted the use of the adhesive Lift-Off correction tape in the new machine, producing a very "clean" correction. The other put options ibm wheel of ribbons required Cover-Up tape, which deposited a white ink on top of the characters being corrected. This complicated corrections on paper colors other than white.

Shortly after the machine was introduced, a "Tech-3" ribbon appeared. It essentially replaced the cloth ribbon, as it offered typing quality close put options ibm wheel the film ribbon but at a use cost comparable to the reusable cloth. Like the cloth ribbon, Tech-3 ribbons incremented only a fraction of the character width after being struck.

Unlike the cloth ribbon, the Tech-3 ribbon provided high quality impressions for several characters from each spot on the one-time-use ribbon. Because characters overstrike each other on a Tech-3 ribbon several times it could not be easily read to discover what had been typed. The Tech-3 ribbon offered equivalent security to hweel carbon film ribbon, as its impressions were permanent as soon as they were struck.

The Tech-3 ribbon was used with the same cover-up tape that worked with the other non-correctable ribbons. The thumb wheel on the ribbon cartridge and the correction tape spools were color-coded so they could be easily identified and matched wheell the appropriate correction tapes: Yellow for the correctable film ribbon and Lift-Off tape; gray, pink, and blue for cloth, carbon film, and Tech-3, respectively.

Later another type of optoons film ribbon and lift-off tape appeared, both color-coded orange. The yellow meant the ribbon was a higher quality and would produce a better quality type image. Orange was a lower cost ribbon for everyday put options ibm wheel. The yellow and orange coded lift-off Forex GBP USD soars after US government shutdown ends would work with either ribbon type.

The slightly adhesive Lift-Off tape would sometimes damage more delicate paper surfaces. A less "sticky" version of these tapes was eventually offered, but some people believed it did not remove the ink as well. Option typists found that a piece of adhesive tape such as "Scotch" tape could be used in place of lift-off tape.

Some colored ribbons such as brown were also available. The ribbon cartridge mechanism did not allow the use of two-color ribbons, such as black and red, that had been common put options ibm wheel earlier typewriters. The Selectric I, Selectric II, and all of optiond "Magnetic Card" jbm "Magnetic Tape" variations except for the Composers, use the same typing elements. These are available in many fonts, including: symbols for science and mathematics, OCR faces for scanning by computers, cursive script, "Old English" frakturand more than a dozen ordinary alphabets.

The Selectric III and "Electronic Typewriters" used a new iptions element. Though the elements were physically interchangeable, the characters were differently arranged, so that standard Selectric elements could not be used in them, and their elements could not be used in standard Selectrics. On the other hand, IBM s using "correspondence coding" used standard office Selectric elements.

The IBM computer used a Selectric mechanism as the console printer. There were two visibly different styles of mechanical design for the elements. The original models had a metal spring clip with two wire wings that were squeezed together to release the element from the typewriter. Later models had a plastic lever molded around a metal axle which pried apart the now-internal spring clip.

This had a tendency to break where the lever joined the axle. The Selectric element was later opitons to have an all-plastic lever. The font size was measured not in points but in pitches that is the number of letters per one inch of the typed line. As a result, pitch fonts 12 letters pkt inch were actually smaller than pitch fonts 10 letters per wheeeland roughly corresponded to the 10pt and 12pt traditional typographic font sizes. For example, in the early optiobs of the Selectric, typists were used to using the lower-case L for the numeral 1, as many previous typewriters lacked a dedicated numeral 1 key.

Pug such an element required the typist to continue the old convention. Later elements tended to have the dedicated numeral 1 and exclamation point characters instead. Some put a degree symbol in place of the exclamation point. IBM would furthermore customize any element for a fee, so literally endless variations were possible. Such customized elements were identified by a gray plastic flip-up clip instead of a eheel one. Many specialized elements were not listed in IBM's wjeel brochure, but were available from IBM provided the right part number was known.

For example, the element for the APL programming language was available. This element was really intended for use with the IBM printing terminal. The ability to change fonts, combined with the neat regular appearance of the typed page, was revolutionary, and marked the beginning of opyions publishing. Any typist could produce a polished manuscript. The possibility to intersperse text in Latin letters with Greek letters and mathematical symbols made the machine especially useful wwheel scientists writing manuscripts that included mathematical formulas.

Proper mathematical ubm was very laborious before the advent of TeX and done only for much-sold textbooks and very prestigious scientific journals. Special type balls also were released ooptions the Athabaskan languagesallowing Navajo and Apache bilingual programs whee, education to be typed for the first time. When a key was depressed, an interposer, beneath the keylever, was pushed down into a slotted tube full of small metal balls called the "compensator tube" and spring latched.

These balls were adjusted to have enough horizontal space for only one interposer to enter at a time. Mechanisms much like this were used in keyboards for teleprinters before World War II. Whee a typist pressed two keys sheel both interposers were blocked from entering the tube. Pressing two keys several milliseconds apart allows the first interposer to enter the tube, tripping a clutch which rotated a fluted shaft driving the interposer horizontally and out of the tube.

The powered horizontal motion of the interposer selected the appropriate rotate and tilt of the printhead for character selection, but also made way for the second interposer to enter the tube some milliseconds later, well hweel the first character wehel been printed. While a full print cycle was 65 milliseconds this filtering and storage feature allowed the typist to depress keys in a more random fashion and still print the characters in the sequence entered. This feature lptions referred to as "Typamatic.

One popular example was the IBM terminal. Among other applications, the with a hweel typing element figured prominently in the early years of the APL programming language. Despite appearances, these machines were not simply Selectric typewriters with an RS connector added. As with other electric typewriters and electric adding machines of the era, Selectrics are electromechanicalnot electronicdevices: The only electrical components are the power cord, power switch, and electric motor.

The electric motor runs continuously. The wherl are not electrical pushbuttons such as those found on a computer keyboard. Pressing a key does not produce an electrical signal as output, but rather engages a series of clutches which couple the motor power to the mechanism to turn and tilt the element. A Selectric would work equally well if hand-cranked or kptions, like treadle powered sewing machines at put options ibm wheel speed.

The original Selectric mechanism was ivm and manufactured by the office equipment division of IBM and put options ibm wheel not engineered for use as a computer terminal. Microswitches were added to the keyboard, solenoids were added to allow the computer option trigger the typing mechanism, and interface electronics were whewl needed. Several mechanical components, in particular the motor and the main clutch, had to be upgraded from the typewriter versions to reliably support continuous operation.

Additional microswitches had to be added to sense the state of various parts of the mechanism, such as case upper vs. Even after adding all those solenoids and switches, getting a Selectric to talk to a computer was a complicated project. The Selectric mechanism had many peculiar requirements. These commands could only be issued at particular times, with the Selectric in a particular state, and then not again until the terminal signaled the operation was complete.

That and the bit-parallel interface and peculiar timing requirements meant the Kptions could not be directly hooked up to a modem. Indeed, it needed a optionz large amount of logic to reconcile the two devices, and the interface logic often outweighed the printing mechanism in the early years. The optimum data rate used to drive the Selectric mechanism turned out to be equivalent to Driving the Selectric mechanism at the more-standard rate of baud appeared to work put options ibm wheel, although at a slightly slower speed.

However, driving the whefl at a non-optimal rate would soon result in its failure, by forcing an internal start-stop clutch to actuate for each character typed, thus wearing it out very rapidly. Continuous typing at the proper The popularity of the Selectric mechanism caused computer manufacturers such as Digital Equipment to support the Code choice affected the font elements which could be used.

Dedicated hardware was also built to drive Selectric printers at The late Bob Bemer wrote [19] that while working for IBM he lobbied unsuccessfully to expand the typing element to 64 characters from The Selectric actually provided 44 characters per case, but the point remains that with 88 printable characters it could not quite produce the full printable ASCII character set.

Since the keyboard was mechanically connected directly with the printer mechanism, keyboard character inputs were immediately typed by the printer mechanism, behavior called half-duplex by most of the computer industry. However, IBM insisted on calling this behavior full duplexcausing much confusion. If the computer system in turn echoed the typed input, having been configured to expect a full-duplex terminal, the echoed output would look something like tthhiiss.

A further discussion of this terminology can be seen in the article on terminal emulation and elsewhere. If the computer system put options ibm wheel user was communicating with was too busy to accept input, it could send a code to mechanically interlock the keyboard so the user could not press any keys. The keyboard was also locked when the computer was typing, to avoid damaging the mechanism or interleaving user input and computer output in a confusing manner. Though done to protect the print mechanism from damage, [27] an unexpected keyboard lock activation could cause minor injury to a typist with a heavy touch.

There was little obvious warning that the keyboard had locked or unlocked, other than a faint click from the interlock solenoid, easily drowned out by the printer and fan noise in many computer facilities. There was a small indicator light, but this was of little help to fast touch typists whose gaze was fixed on copy they were transcribing. The Selectric also had a special "print inhibit" feature. This feature was used to avoid printing computer login passwords, and for other special purposes.

In spite of all these idiosyncrasies, between and abouta Selectric-based printer was a relatively inexpensive and fairly popular way to get high-quality output from a computer. A minor industry developed to support small businesses and leading-edge hobbyists who would obtain a Selectric mechanism put options ibm wheel cost much less than a full-fledged terminal and modify it to interface with industry-standard serial data communications.

The typewriter industry followed put options ibm wheel trend shortly afterward, and even IBM replaced their Selectric lineup with the daisy wheel-based "Wheelwriter" series. The IBM was also offered in a remote terminal configuration, similar in use to the For the record label, see Selectric Records. Small pitch fonts [ edit ]. Large pitch fonts [ edit ].

Retrieved 15 January Selectric Can Accommodate Six Print FontsNew York Times, 1 August"An electric typewriter optiojs eliminates hweel bars and movable carriages and that can use six interchangeable type faces was introduced by puy International Business Machines Corporation yesterday Industrial Design Society of America--About ID. IBM Journal of Research and Development. Typography: Design and Practice. Making Light: Incorporating Electrolite. A Press Achieved: the Emergence of Auckland University Press, Retrieved 21 October Audio Visuals Universal Inc.

Retrieved 15 January — via YouTube. Applied typing and information processing 6th ed. IBM Office Products Division. IBM Systems Reference Library. IBM Systems Development Division. In Joy Still Felt. Sholes and Glidden typewriter. Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in. Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Put options ibm wheel store. Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent optiond Contact page.

What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this page. Create a book Download as PDF Printable version. This page was last modified on 23 Marchat Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Optionns Policy.




IBM wheelwriter II from 1989 (cleaning and repairing)


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