But as Singer has argued, those of us who live. The judicial system is what gets us out of a state of nature. In the article along with any other study it is proven whites commit more crime than their black counterparts but way more people from the black community are behind bars. What is a fair allocation of wealth? I have seen you argument many times.

What is your email? For example, Classical Liberalism is the dominant tradition. Civic Republicanism, Ascriptivism, Conservatism, Socialism, Libertarianism Definition:Serves as a maps of meaning for orienting moral and political life. It attempts at meaning building. Problematic social reality, and matrices for political life. Connects political and moral life, in a type of meaning map.

Significance: Americans face "a cultural war" problem in which there is a lack of consensus and pressures to conform ideologically for example: are you "left" or "right" In this cultural war, people are simplified. The purpose of studying Contemporary Ideologies is to be able to provide a strong version of ideas against the cultural war, so to avoid simplifications. Simplification as in the straw man fallacy. Classical liberalism Thinker s : John Locke, Jeremy Bentham, J.

Mill, James Madison, Adam Smith Tradition: Classical liberalism Definition: Political Ideology, whose central theme is freedom of the individual and the construction of society where the individual has priority in term of his or her needs. Classical liberalism asserts that the right of individuals exists before the formation of states and government. Consequently, governments do not have the right to violate the natural rights of the individual.

Significance: Helps us to understand American ideology, inspired by the enlightenment. Born out of the collapse of European powers, based on enlightenment ideas over monarchy. Response to Industrialization and Urbanization. State of nature Thinker s :Locke Tradition: Classical Liberalism Definition: The state of nature is a state before political institutions.

In the state of nature, there exist the individual executive and the law legislature. According to Locke, all forex pending order types dementia exist in a state of perfect freedom and equality. Therefore, in the law of debt put option definition utilitarianism for in a state of liberty - there are no limitations on a man's ability to dispose of his person or property, a man must understand that he should respect all other men's lives, health, liberty, and possessions.

Therefore, the Freedom of liberty does not equal license license is anarchy - locke means that you have liberty to do whatever you want, but you don't have total liberty. Locke addresses is that of man's own person, or, the labor of his body. This belongs exclusively to him and he may reap the work of his hands. When he removes something from nature through his hard work, it is no longer the common property of all mankind but belongs to himself exclusively. It is labor that legitimates the possession, even when the property, be it an animal or land, was held by the commons.

Significance: God is the owner and Chief he owns all things, he uses the bible to shape his argument. Dont take more than your share or hold onto so much that it spoils Natural rights Thinker s :Locke Tradition: Classical Liberalism Definition: What people are like and the rights we are born with before any form of government, property and individualism, We are all born in a state of owning ourselves and this is our primordial right.

Significance social contract theory Thinker s : Locke Tradition: Classical Liberalism Definition: Locke claims that men are naturally free and equal as part of the justification for understanding legitimate political government as the result of a social contract where people debt put option definition utilitarianism the state of nature conditionally transfer some of their rights to the government in order to better ensure the stable, comfortable enjoyment of their lives, liberty, and property.

Since governments exist by the consent of the people in order to protect the rights of the people and promote the public good, governments that fail to do so can forex trading journal template routing resisted and replaced with new governments. The purpose of having a government is to serve as an arbiter. The judicial system is what gets us out of a state of nature. The government serves as a referee by autonomic people who already know the law.

You enter into a contract with the government to protect all of the primordial rights Significance: If everyone in society were to start out as equals, they would all want a strong social contract with the government that would benefit all, especially those who end up at the bottom. This serves as the foundation of John Rawl's original position and the veil of ignorance.

Equality proviso Thinker s : Locke Tradition: Classical liberalism Definition: According to this proviso, an individual can legitimately create personal property interests in the bounties of nature only so long as "there is enough and as good left in common for others. Significance: This provisor help with the acquisition and distribution of land and property. Nozick applies the equality proviso when stating that minimal welfare society is permissible as long as the equality proviso exists.

It is an account of how people first come to own common property, what types of things can be held, and so forth. Significance:This is part of the entitlement theory; a theory of distributive justice and private property created by Robert Nozick in his book Anarchy, State, and Utopia. The theory is Nozick's attempt to describe "justice in holdings" Nozick - or what can be said about and done with the property people own when viewed from a principle of justice.

These skills and those of others are a commodity to be bought and sold on the open market, and in such a society is demonstrated a selfish and unending thirst for consumption which is considered the crucial core of human nature. What makes a human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. The individual is essentially the proprietor of his own person and capacities, for which he owes nothing to society.

Although the individual cannot alienate the whole of debt put option definition utilitarianism property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor Significance: Society is a little more than a system of economic relations. Political society becomes a means of safeguarding private property. Freedom does not equal license people are under the law of nature. Society is like a tool towards our end. Atomism assigns the individual as the basic unit of analysis for all implications of social life.

Political theorists such as John Locke extend social atomism to the political realm. They assert that human beings are fundamentally self-interested, equal and rational social atoms that perangkat lunak forex untuk proses download form an aggregate society of self-interested individuals. Those participating in society must sacrifice a portion of their individual rights in order to form a social contract with the other persons in society.

Ultimately, although some rights are renounced, self-interested cooperation occurs for the mutual preservation of the individuals and for society at large Significance Burke and Tocqueville are against social atomism they do not agree. Everyone acting in their own best interest is spontaneously the best of all orders. Significance: Part of the liberal tradition, articulated by Adam Smith, relates to laissez faire economics deism Thinker s : Thomas Pain, Jefferson Tradition: Liberalism Definition: Religion of the enlightenment.

They do not believe in an active God, a lot like nature it is spontaneous and self containing. Essentially God set up the world but then left it to run itself, and take care of itself. As a result of a constitution's, certain powers are delegated to specific entities Significance invisible hand Classical Liberalism laissez faire and constitutionalism Definition: Describes unintended social benefits resulting from individual actions.

Natural force that guides free market capitalism through competition for scarce resource. In a free market no regulation of any type would be needed to ensure that the debt put option definition utilitarianism beneficial exchange of goods and services took place. Invisible hand would guide market participants to trade in the most mutually beneficial manner Significance: Came out of constitutionalism this idea that a hands off policy and spontaneous orders and everyone acting as their own individual was the best way to regualte the market.

Part of system T. Elliot, It is impossible to design a system so perfect that no one needs to be good. Fits with deism and the view of nature laissez-faire Thinker s : adam Smith classical liberalism, conservatives? Let the system work itself out. Economically an individual makes the best choice for them and this is best for everyone. Significance: Negative freedom on the economy comparative advantage vs.

The doctrine that an action is right insofar as it promotes happiness, and that the greatest happiness of the greatest number should be the guiding principle of conduct. Nothing is good or bad inherently. Everything is measured on a scale of pleasure and pain. All good is derived from pleasure giving it utility. Pleasure is viewed inherently as what people prefer. Hostile ot social contract because it is not absolute Significance:Bentham: recognizes the fundamental role of pain and pleasure in human life approves or disapproves of an action on the basis of the amount of pain or pleasure brought about by the consequence equates all good with pleasurable and evil with pain asserts that please and pain are capable of quantification and hence of measure Measure pain and pleasure: intensity, duration certainty, nearness, fecundity, and purity Mills quality of happiness " Better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied.

Rights to freedom of expression criteria Majority wrong, silence them; they rob us of the truth Majority righ, minority wrong, affirm our truth Partially right; partially wrong, depends utility Consequentialism argues that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct Significance utility and rights Thinker s :Mill Tradition: Utilitarianism Definition: Rights are completely utility based. Everything is based on utility not abstract rights, consequentialism determines if something is good or bad.

Significance: According to mill debt put option definition utilitarianism is all you can appeal to it is very hostile toward the social contract theory. Issues with the theory: there is no real way to quantify utility. Pleasure is treated as intrinsically good, but is that true? In the modern world the people ruler is everywhere. This creates unfreedom because everyone is your sovereign ruler harm principle Thinker s : Mill Tradition: Utilitarianism Definition: the actions of individuals should only be limited to prevent harm to other individuals Significance : the only way you are justified in involving yourself in someone else's freedom is if they harm others.

If they're only hurting themselves i'ts fine, but if they are harming others that's when it becomes a problem. Conformity is harmful for all of society it robs the human race of new thoughts and innovative ideas. There are three scenarios 1 If the majority opinion is false, you don't want to silence the few who could bring truty 2 if the majority opinion is true, utility is maximized because they have to defend their case thereby making it stronger 3 If majority opinion i partially true, it could provide more truth and a more complete picture Significance: Stay open to the possibility of fallibility having a true belief is better than a falsehood.

Individuality is valuable because people might learn something from the non conformists. Non conformists may discover new goods and keep alive existing goods. All people should value what originality brings to the world victimless crime Thinker s : Mill Tradition: Utilitarianism Definition: The claim that can be made if a private harm does not impact others. Term used to refer to actions that have been made illegal but which do not directly violate or threaten the rights of any other individual.

The only way you are justified in getting involved in something is if it causes harm to others if no harm to others is caused you have no right to get involved. Meaning the crime is victimless Significance: Can there ever really be a victimless crime? This idea makes the claim in utilitarianism that if private harm does not impact others it isn't a harm at all. According to tocqueville, this is a new kind of unfreedom. Coming from the idea of "the people"and the cult of popularity.

The ruler is everywhere because everyone is enforcing norms. In correspondence with his friend Louis de Kergolay Tocqueville gradually shifted his view from seeing a form of military despotism being the major threat to liberty to thinking that a form of "democratic despotism" would be the way modern societies lost their liberties. Following on from comments made by Kergolay, Tocqueville began to fear that a democracy might hand powers to a single person without the need for a crisis like a war providing the impetus.

Equality and the demand for security would create a paternalistic "immense, protective power" which would take over running the lives of individuals, turning the nation into "a flock of timid and hardworking animals with the government as its shepherd. Santa Monica There are shared goods and the recognized benefits coming from each other, responsibility for what their community looks like.

Holding a person responsible for their actions. The idea that you can reduce something with complex levels into simple phenomenon. And the emphasis on Natural types that can be politcally organized Significance: Rights under this don't seem to be universalnot all people deserve rights or governance. Liberalism classical liberalism asserts that equality. However, liberalism face the challenge of in-egalitarian practices.

This is an empirical claim based on the statistics that more people in the US are put behind bars than all of our industrialized counterparts. Racially it is incredible how many African Americans are in prison. Significance: Commentary on how our society operates and that the hierarchy is determinant of how our society functions.

In the article along with any other study it is proven whites commit more crime than their black counterparts but way more people from the black community are behind bars. The rhetoric is written so that certain groups are clearly targeted. Things that poor people do is the standard for what a crime is. Significance: Demand strict criminal justice system, especially in relation to violent and property crime. Law and Order was a powerful conservative theme in the U.

Used to push back against illegal drugs and violent gang activity. Perfect examples is crack vs. Their incarceration removes their ability to vote and after they are out of prison their economic, employment and other chances are cut in more than half. Thus further marginalizing their status in society and keeping them from hierarchical advancement as a group U.

Green, Dewey, Rawls Tradition: Social or "Left" Liberalism Definition:Endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights and liberties. The legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues poverty, education, healthcare Significance: 19th century laissez faire liberalism, born out of cold war polarization. This is conducted at the national level Negative vs. Green Tradition: Social "Left" Liberalism Definition: Negative freedom is the freedom from constraints, no impediments.

Positive freedom is when you have the ability to fulfill your own personal potential. Significance: used in many traditions to determine what kind of freedom people have the right ot The Dustbowl Thinker s : Ken Burns video exerpt Tradition: Social "Left" Liberalism Definition:Area of land where vegetation has been lost and soil reduced to dust and eroded, especially as a consequence of drought and unsuitable farming practice.

Area of Oklahoma, Kansas, and northern Texas. The pursuit of technology and the unregulated behavior driven by everyone trying to gain the most for themselves lead to one of the greatest environmental disasters. The free soil and free market associated with it did not re stabilize the resource was exploited until it was depleted.

Significance: People lost faith in the markets. This led to one of the greatest electoral realignments in history. The New Deal Democratic coalition that put Franklin D. Roosevelt in the White House and the Democratic Party in control of Congress combined support from the working class and various ethnic and minority groups with already existing strength in the South.

The basis of Democratic appeal to blue-collar workers, low-income individuals, and recent immigrant groups largely Catholics and Jews from southern and eastern Europe was the party's liberalism in economic matters. Roosevelt and the Democrats favored federal government activity to combat the Depression and proposed programs to benefit disadvantaged groups. The Republicans, who appealed more to the middle-class, business groups, and northern white Protestants, were critical of this expansion of government interference in the economy and creation of a variety of social welfare programs" living wage Thinker s : Steinbeck Tradition: Social "Left" Liberalism Definition: Wage high enough to maintain a normal standard of living.

Everyone has a right to subsistence, this is the basis for fair negotiations when entering contracts. Significance: people should not be treated like objects. Without the option to say no people can enter into contracts unwillingly in order to get a little. To be understood it must be in its historical context. Classical Liberalism was bor out of its time period it was a response to European oligarchies and confessionalism the desire to freely practice religion monarchies in Europe were also the head of the church.

Significance: Lockean liberalism is trapped in a time warp because it is only applicable in its context. Fair and impartial point of view that is to be adopted in our reasoning about the fundamentals of justice. Imagine ourselves to the in the position of free and equal positions who jointly agree upon and commit themselves to principles of social and political justice Significance veil of ignorance Thinker s : Rawls Tradition: Social or Left Liberalism Definition:You know nothing of yourself, natural abilities, or position in society.

You know nothing of your sex, race, nationality, individual tastes. Behind veil of ignorance all individuals are simply specified as rational, free, and morally equal beings. You do know however that in the real world there will be a wide variety in the natural distribution of natural assets and abilities, distinguish groups of people, etc Significance: because you don't know where you could be placed on society The only safe principle will be the fair principle because you do not know whether you will suffer or benefit.

So everyone will pick a lowest standard of living that they themselve would not mind living in difference principle Thinker s : Rawls Tradition: Social or Left Liberalism Definition: social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both 1 reasonably expected to be everyone's advantage 2 attached to positions and offices open to all. The spread of welath is fair and not to great because anyone could find themselves at the bottom.

Seek to maximize autonomy and freedom of choice. Emphasizing political freedom, voluntary association, individual judgment Significance : economic and moral critique of th new deal welfare state. Well intentioned policy left to this idea that some people now aren't doing anything. Idea that reform creates dependency "patterned" redistributive theories Thinker s : Nozick Tradition: Right Liberalism - Libertarianism Definition: Things not previously possessed by anyone may be acquired. Possession may be transferred from one person to another.

Things must be done to rectify injustices arising from violations of the above two. Each persons talents and abilities belong to them; have a right to keep whatever these talents and abilities Significance: To forcibly redistribute what they earn is to fail to respect their autonomy, for example n libertarianism this is in reference to taxation or stipulation imposed by the government entitlement theory entitlement theory Thinker s : Nozick Tradition: Right Liberalism- Libertarianism Definition: Nozick challenged the idea of Lockean entitlement.

He says it Does not demand that debt put option definition utilitarianism distribution resulting for just acquisition be patterned or correlated with anything else such as moral or merit. Significance: People should be free to pay what they wish to for goods or services they desire; they have the right to spend that money how they wish.

However; from the fact that people have a right to spend their money as they choose, it does not follow that the recipient has a right to that money taxation as "forced labor" Thinker s : Nozick Tradition: Libertarianism or Right Liberalism Definition: When stock trading as a source of income are forced to pay in taxes a percentage of what you earn from laboring, you are in effect forced to labor for someone else because the earnings of your labor is being taken from you against your will and used for someone else's purposes.

Significance: Allows for whatever taxation is required in order to fund the activities of the minimal state. Taxation of one's earning from labor for any purport beyond that of funding the minimal state is morally illegitimate pricing system Thinker s : Hayek Tradition: Right Liberals -Libertarianism Definition:Market is viewed as spontaneous and relies on decentralization.

No cost needs to be set, instead the price is set by each individual that contributes to the cost of a product. Price aggregates a bunch of knowledge it is not boiled down to anyone person claiming knowledge or the price. No central planning, and each participant only needs to know very little. Preservation of freedom requires either the elimination of power where that is possible, or its dispersal where it cannot be eliminated.

Economic organization separates economic power from political power and in this way enables the one to be an offset to the other. The market separates the economic activities of the individual from his political ideas or activities and in this way provides individuals with an effective support for personal freedom. Significance: capitalism and moral self Thinker debt put option definition utilitarianism : Ayn Rand Tradition: People don't act off of collective attitudes, they act off selfish ideas Definition: Morality is based on reason, and powered by the meaning of logic.

As a human the highest moral purpose is himself and to follow his own rational action. Significance: conservatism Thinker s : Burke, BuckleyTwelve Southerners Tradition: Conservatism Definition:political philosophy that favours tradition in the sense of various religious, cultural, or nationally-defined beliefs and customs in the face of external forces for change, and is critical of proposals for radical social change.

Significance: 18th century backlash to enlightenment radicalization. Politics is viewed as an art not a true science conservative view of human nature Thinker s : Burke Tradition: Conservatism Definition: You are first a product of your society, a brother, mother, sisteraunt, uncle etc. The social is stronger than the individual.

Man is fallible in their contracts and morals. It is impossible to achieve r perfection in any form. Historical context and what surrounds people influences their human nature. Attitudes changing and the constant state of progress messes everything up. His basic political principles are based on the ancient classical and Christian moral natural law, derived from God and perceived by all uncorrupted debt put option definition utilitarianism through "right reason.

Burke believed that man is by nature a social animal. He rejected every political theory of the origins of society based on the assumption of a primitive or pre-civil "state of nature," like John Locke. Burke believed that moral problems are never abstract matters, but are rather always embodied in concrete human conditions.

Significance :Historical emergences thinks of it as a cyclical timeline. Opposes enlightenment thinkers and thinks that history can repeat itself. He rejects the view that it is a contract or that it is created. Society is a contract between the living dead and yet to be born. You are already in society always so there is no use to talk about a primordial conflict. Hierarchy of property leads to stability in a society.

Attachment to Nobles oblige and and the age of chivalry. Significance: Society has no contract it has just always existed and legitimized it. Capitalism is all about maximization for the individuals good and everyone benefits. Burke views this as wrong you have to act on behalf of powers. Particulalry becuase this stems from the age online forex traders 4 you chivalry and solidarity those at the top are obligated to "assist" the needy.

Significance: he also does not like capitalism because it replaces the spiritualism in society and religion. Also he does not like the idea that everything becomes negotiable and a contract. He appeals to chivalry and solidarity. You are born into a role and are a member of society first. He bleives hierarchy is best and leads to stability. Things become a problem when they are marketized and contractual. Rights exist but humans are imperfect so they don't really matter.

He belives in rights but that they are abstract and not useful to us. The government has a large moral role, you must construct moral responsibilities. You can't create freedom by leaving everything alone. Founder have flaws but it important we don't tear them down for this they need to be viewed as heros. There is one great founder and that is God huge emphasis on morals and traditions government becomes sort of like a civil religion.

Significance : Response to enlightenment radicalization. He would be viewed as a Skeptical Conservatives of capitalism, the belief in regional agrarianism, critique of industrialization. Communists were clear enemies due to their rejection of religion, and it was an enemy to libertarians because their was no private property and there was very large government.

Significance : This unity was only able to be created due to the hatred during the cold war. This scenario created an opportunity for homogeneity that did not naturally exist. This form of the republican party can only exist when a common enemy exists. Left without an enemy big business destroys traditionalism. Society should own the property not individuals. No free market, the government controls the economy. All citizens have roughly the same level of prosperity.

A hierarchical system is bad, it should be like Toqueville says a localized participatory rule. Significance :Arose debt put option definition utilitarianism a response to the industrial Revolution. Way of producing and reproducing the means of human existence. Looks for causes in developments and changes in human society by means by which humans collectively debt put option definition utilitarianism the necessities of life Significance means-needs cycle Thinker s : Marx Tradition: Socialism Definition:The abstraction of human labor into something that can be exchanged for money.

The relation of labor-power to the actual labor of a private individual is analogous the relation of exchange-value to use-value. The system of labor-power relies on the belief that the laborer chooses freely to enter into a contractual relationship with an employer, who purchases that worker's labor power as a commodity and then owns the goods produced by that worker. However, the worker is exploited insofar as he has no other option: the capitalist owns all the means debt put option definition utilitarianism production.

Also, the capitalist seeks to achieve the highest possible rate of surplus-value, which "depends, in the first place, on the degree of exploitation of labour-power" The capitalist seeks to provide the laborer only enough money to subsist and to produce more laborers through child-bearing. Significance: Individuals in a capitalist cycle are viewed as a means. This directly stems out of the time period. During early industrialization the people working were exploited beyond belief no human rights or safeties.

Productive relations shape the productive forces. It was never fully created and viewed as utopian because there was always a centralized state placing demands and controlling the people. There wa never true complete equality between those in power and those below them. Problems did not disappear as many thought they would in some ways they got worse. The USSR experiment and failure with communism lead to it becoming a dirty word and rejection by most of the rest of the world.

It is not possible to achieve the full blown "perfection" of marxism post-marxism Thinker s : Hedges, Bellah Tradition: Socialism Definition: Rejection of the soviet model. Preference for localisation over globalization, they want localized participatory rule. They drop the idea that this is the need of philosophy all of modernity is moving towards. They debt put option definition utilitarianism want a violent class war. Shift from a scientific to a cultural analysis the reason you have culture is based on your class interest.

Removal of sanctions against religion. They advocate religious pluralism this eliminates a lot of tension. Significance: Begins to dissociate communism from socialism critique of corporations Thinker s :Hedges Tradition: Socialism Definition: it is viewed as a threat to self rule. If there is too much centralization it becomes bad for democracy. It is forex trading secrets pdf notes view that far off elites will decide how your community is run and what it looks like Significance: Corporate bureaucratic hierarchies west virginia mining are able to get away with pollution, and bad practices that harm a community because the employees and those impacted by their behavior aren't powerful enough to challenge the corporation.

Corporations use lobbyists etc. These groups have to be exploited in order for the common good to exist. Significance : Everyone is addicted to growth and money, so if we could put everyone out of poverty we don't because structural exploitation allows the rich to get richer. Low income minority communities are typically found here. A term describing structural exploitation.

Certain people have to sacrifice by being exploited for their labor so that everyone else is better off and does not have to pay extremely high prices for goods. Significance: Example used in class is migrant workers in florida. They are exploited for their work harvesting fruit. Peonage, also called debt slavery or debt servitude, is a system where an employer compels a worker to pay off a debt with work.

Significance Iron Law Wages Thinker s : David Ricardo Tradition: Definition: The idea that the market will correct and there is no need for a declared minimum wage. Operates on the assumption that if employers don't give employees a high enough wage to subsist they will leave. In order to meet demand employers will have to raise wages to be able to remain in business Proposed law of economic that asserts that real wages always tend, in the long run, toward the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of the worker David Ricardo: proposed that they be kept at the lowest possible level - surplus of labour Significance:This is empirically untrue.

This system does not account for charity and the fact that migrant workers etc. Significance: With the collapse of Marxism there is no post capitalism alternative. When there is a threat to the system the two groups within the left bod together so that they can defend against the threat of communism Marxism. When this threat does not exist those who align more with social liberalism retreat to their side and libertarians retreat to theirs creating two groups as opposed to the formerly one cohesive group.

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Utilitarianism Definition: This is an empirical claim based on the statistics that more people in the US are put Without the option to say no. Stock Stock price Exercise price Expiration date Dividend payout Call option value Put option value option it fantastic-art.rur 11 Questions this new debt capacity. Value of risky debt = value of risk-free debt - put option on company assets. Utilitarianism. SEE definition.