Geographic Information Systems Technician. According to the BLS, employment in the field is expected to decline 8 percent from to because companies may hire clmputer programmers from other countries with lower wages. Culture Counts: How to Assess Corporate Culture and Thrive in a New Role. Different Roles, Different Names. However, the salary depends a lot upon some factors such as the state of the industry, work experience, qualifications and ability of the candidate, etc.

Computer science is the study of the sciece, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and computet of the methodical procedures or algorithms that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information.

An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems. Some fields, such as computational complexity theory which explores the fundamental properties of computational and intractable problemsare highly abstract, while fields such as computer graphics xomputer real-world visual applications.

Other fields still focus on challenges in implementing computation. For example, programming language theory considers various approaches to the description of computation, while the study of computer programming itself investigates various iption of the use of programming language and complex systems. Human—computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to humans. The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer.

Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such computr multiplication and division. Further, algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity, even before the computer science as a career option list of sophisticated computing equipment. Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in InThomas de Colmar launched the mechanical calculator industry [note 1] when he released his simplified arithmometerwhich was the first calculating machine strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment.

Charles Babbage started the design of the first automatic mechanical calculatorhis Difference Engineinwhich eventually gave him the idea of the first programmable mechanical calculatorhis Analytical Engine. When the machine was finished, some hailed it as "Babbage's dream come true". Computer science began to be established as a distinct academic discipline in the s and early s.

The first computer science degree program in the United States was formed at Purdue University in Although many initially believed it was impossible that computers themselves could actually be a scientific field of study, in the late fifties it gradually became accepted among the greater academic population. IBM short for International Business Machines released the IBM [17] and later the IBM [18] computers, which were widely used during the exploration period of such devices.

Initially, computers were quite costly, and some degree of human aid was needed for efficient use—in part from professional computer operators. As computer adoption became more widespread and affordable, less human assistance was needed for common usage. Despite its short history as a formal academic discipline, computer science has made a number of fundamental contributions to science and society —in fact, along with electronicsit is a founding science of the current epoch of human history called the Information Age and a driver of the Information Revolutionseen as the lkst major leap in financial instrument put option zen technological progress after the Industrial Revolution — CE and the Agricultural Revolution — BC.

Although first proposed in[16] the term "computer science" appears in a article in Communications of the ACM[28] in which Louis Fein argues for lidt creation of a Graduate School in Computer Sciences analogous to the creation of Harvard Business School in[29] justifying the name by arguing that, like management sciencethe subject is applied and interdisciplinary in nature, while having the characteristics typical of an academic discipline.

Because of this, several alternative names have been proposed. Danish scientist Peter Naur suggested the term datalogy[32] to reflect the fact that the scientific discipline revolves around data and data treatment, while not necessarily involving computers. The first scientific institution to use the term was the Department of Datalogy at the University of Copenhagen, founded inwith Peter Naur being the first professor in datalogy. The term is used mainly in the Scandinavian countries.

An alternative term, also proposed by Naur, is data science ; this is now used for a distinct field of data analysis, including statistics and databases. Also, in the early days of computing, a number of terms for the practitioners of the field of computing were suggested in the Communications of the ACM — turingineerturologistflow-charts-manapplied meta-mathematicianand applied optioon. Similar words have also been adopted in the Carere as in the School of Informatics of the University of Edinburgh.

For example, the study of computer hardware is usually considered part of computer engineeringwhile the study of commercial computer systems and their deployment is often called information technology or information systems. However, there has been much cross-fertilization of ideas between the various computer-related disciplines. Computer science research also often intersects other disciplines, such as philosophycognitive sciencelinguisticsmathematicsphysicsbiologystatisticsand logic.

Computer science is considered by some to have a much closer relationship with mathematics than many scientific disciplines, with some observers saying that computing is a mathematical science. Computer science departments with a mathematics emphasis and with a numerical orientation consider alignment with computational science. Both types of departments tend to make efforts to bridge the field educationally if not across all research.

A number of computer scientists have argued for the distinction of three separate paradigms in computer science. Peter Wegner argued that those paradigms are science, technology, and mathematics. Eden described them as the "rationalist paradigm" which treats computer science as a branch of mathematics, which is prevalent in theoretical computer science, and mainly employs deductive reasoningthe "technocratic paradigm" which might be found in engineering approaches, most prominently in software engineeringand the "scientific paradigm" which approaches computer-related artifacts from the empirical perspective of natural sciencesidentifiable in some branches of artificial intelligence.

In addition to these four areas, CSAB also identifies fields such as software engineering, artificial intelligence, computer networking and communication, database systems, parallel computation, distributed computation, human—computer interaction, computer graphics, operating systems, and numerical and symbolic computation as being important areas of computer science. Its aim is forex trading pakistan map understand the nature of computation and, as a consequence of this understanding, provide more efficient methodologies.

All papers introducing or studying mathematical, logic and formal concepts and methods are welcome, provided that their motivation is clearly drawn from the careet of computing. According to Peter Denningthe fundamental question underlying computer science is, "What can be efficiently automated? In an effort to answer the first question, computability theory examines which computational problems are solvable on various theoretical models of computation.

The second question is addressed by computational complexity theorywhich studies the time and space costs associated with different approaches to solving a multitude of computational problems. Information theory is related to the quantification of information. This was developed by Claude Shannon to find fundamental limits on signal processing operations such as compressing data and on reliably storing and communicating data.

Codes are used for data compressioncryptographyerror detection and correctionand more recently also for network coding. Codes optlon studied for the purpose of designing efficient and reliable data transmission methods. Algorithms and data structures is the study of ss used computational methods and their computational efficiency. Programming language theory is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages and their individual features.

It falls within the discipline of computer science, both depending on and affecting mathematicssoftware engineeringand linguistics. It is an active research area, with numerous dedicated academic journals. Formal methods are a particular kind of mathematically based technique for the specificationdevelopment and verification of software and hardware systems.

The use of formal methods for software and hardware design is motivated by the expectation that, as in other engineering disciplines, performing appropriate mathematical analysis can contribute to the reliability and robustness of a design. They form an important theoretical underpinning for software engineering, especially where safety or security is involved. Formal methods are a useful adjunct to software testing since they help avoid errors and can also give a framework for testing.

For industrial use, tool support is required. However, the high cost of using formal methods means that they are usually only used in the development of high-integrity and life-critical systemswhere safety or security is of utmost importance. Formal methods are best described as the application of a fairly broad variety of theoretical computer science fundamentals, in particular computer science as a career option list calculi, formal languagesautomata theoryand program semanticsbut also type systems and algebraic data types to problems in software sa hardware specification and verification.

Applied computer science aims at identifying certain computer science concepts that can be used directly in solving real world problems. Artificial intelligence AI top 100 forex trading brokers tip computer science as a career option list or is required to synthesize goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation, learning and communication found in humans and animals.

From its origins in cybernetics and in the Dartmouth Conferenceartificial intelligence research has been lish cross-disciplinary, drawing on areas of expertise such as applied mathematicssymbolic logicsemioticselectrical engineeringphilosophy of mindneurophysiologyand social intelligence. AI is associated in the popular mind with robotic developmentbut the main field of practical application has been as an embedded component in areas of software developmentwhich require computational understanding.

The starting-point in the late s was Alan Turing 's question "Can computers think? But the automation of evaluative and predictive tasks has been increasingly successful as a substitute for human monitoring and intervention in domains of computer application involving complex real-world data. Computer architecture, or digital computer organization, is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It focuses largely on the way by which the central processing unit performs internally and accesses addresses in memory.

Computer performance analysis is liist study of work flowing through computers with the general goals of improving throughputcontrolling response timeusing resources efficiently, eliminating bottlenecksand predicting performance under anticipated peak loads. The study is connected to many other fields in computer science, including computer visionimage processingand computational geometryand is heavily applied in the fields of special effects and video games. Computer security is a branch of computer technology, lisst objective includes protection of information from unauthorized access, disruption, or modification while maintaining the accessibility and usability of the system for its intended users.

Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding encryption and therefore deciphering decryption information. Modern cryptography is largely related to computer science, for many encryption and decryption computer science as a career option list are based on their computational complexity. Computational science or scientific computing is the field of study concerned with constructing mathematical models and quantitative analysis techniques and using optlon to analyze and solve scientific problems.

In practical use, it is typically the application of computer simulation and other forms of computation to problems in various scientific disciplines. Concurrency is a property of systems in which several computations are executing simultaneously, and potentially interacting with each other. A number of mathematical models have been developed for general concurrent computation including Petri netsprocess calculi and the Parallel Random Access Machine model.

A distributed system extends the idea of concurrency onto multiple computers connected q a network. Computers within the same distributed system have their own private memory, and information is often exchanged among themselves to achieve a common goal. A database is intended to organize, store, and retrieve large amounts of data easily. Digital databases are managed using database management systems to store, create, maintain, and search computer science as a career option list, through database models and query languages.

Research that coomputer theories, principles, and guidelines for user interface designers, so they can create satisfactory user experiences with desktop, laptop, and mobile devices. Software engineering is the study of designing, implementing, and modifying software in order to ensure it is of high quality, affordable, maintainable, and fast to build. It is a systematic approach to software design, involving the application of engineering practices to software.

Software engineering deals with the organizing and analyzing of software—it doesn't dareer deal with the creation or manufacture of new software, but its internal maintenance and arrangement. Both computer applications software engineers lidt computer systems software engineers are projected to be among the fastest growing occupations from to The philosopher of computing Bill Rapaport noted three Great Insights of Computer Science : [50] Conferences are important events for computer science research.

During these conferences, researchers from the public and private sectors present their recent work and meet. Unlike in most other academic fields, in computer science, the prestige of conference papers is greater than that of journal publications. For example, inCode. Inapproximately half of all computer science degrees in Malaysia were conferred to women. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on. Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

Contents Main article: History of computer science. See also: History of computing and History of informatics. Academic genealogy of computer scientists. Association for Computing Machinery. Computer Science Teachers Association. Informatics and Engineering comptuer. List of academic computer science departments. List of computer scientists. List of publications in computer science. List of pioneers in computer science.

List of unsolved problems in computer science. Zs of software engineering. Technology transfer in computer science. Computer science — Wikipedia book. Archived from the original on Charles Babbage, pioneer of the computer. Strawberry Press, Mill Valley, CA". Archived from the original on February 10, Encyclopedia of Computer Science. Archived from the original PDF on Conte dies at 85".

Retrieved December 12, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. The Science of Computing: Shaping a Discipline. Retrieved November 24, Archived from the original PDF on September 11, Retrieved January 11, Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs 2nd ed. The computer compuher is a revolution in the way we think and in the way we express what we think. The essence of this change is the emergence of what might best be called procedural epistemology — the study of the structure of knowledge from an imperative point of view, as opposed to the more declarative point of view taken by classical mathematical subjects.

Archived from the original on June 21, Digital Debate Az Put to Rest". Communications of the ACM. Retrieved May 30, Archived Ootion 20,at the Wayback Machine. Mounier-Kuhn, L'Informatique en France, de la seconde guerre mondiale au Plan Calcul. Annals of Careee Engineering. Research paradigms in computer science—Proceedings of the 2nd international Conference on Software Engineering. San Francisco, California, United States: IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA.

Computer Science: Reflections on the Field, Reflections from the Field. Collins, Graham October 14, Shannon: Founder of Information Theory". Thisted, Ronald April 7, The University of Chicago. The Every Computer Performance Book, Chapter 3: Creer laws. Retrieved 20 July Computer Science Handbook 2nd ed. Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science. The books can be used by anyone wanting simply to gain an understanding of one of these areas, or by someone desiring to be in research in a topic, or by instructors wishing to find timely information on a subject they are teaching outside their major areas of expertise.

Ralston, Anthony ; Reilly, Edwin D. Encyclopedia of Computer Science 4th ed. The editors have done a commendable job of blending historical perspective and practical reference information. The encyclopedia remains essential optino most public and academic library reference collections. Xcience in Computer Science and Information Technology. Selected Papers on Computer Science. CSLI Publications, Cambridge University Press. The little engine that could've: The calculating machines of Charles Babbage.

Howard Aiken, Portrait of a computer pioneer. The origins of Digital computers, Selected Papers. Is computer science science? Denning, Great principles in computing curriculaTechnical Symposium on Computer Science Education, Research evaluation for computer science, Informatics Europe report. Shorter journal version: Bertrand Meyer, Christine Choppy, Jan van Leeuwen and Jorgen Staunstrup, Research evaluation daftar nama santa dan santo katolik none computer sciencein Communications of the ACMvol.

Joint Task Force of Association for Computing Machinery ACMAssociation for Information Systems AIS and IEEE Computer Society IEEE CS. Computing Curricula The Overview Report. Norman GibbsAllen Tucker. Communications of the ACMVolume 29 Issue 3, March Find more about Computer science at Wikipedia's sister projects. Software verification and validation. Klara Dan von Neumann. Major fields of computer science Note: This template roughly follows the ACM Computing classification.

Knowledge representation and reasoning. Automated planning and scheduling. Philosophy of artificial intelligence. Outline of applied science. Digital technologies in education. Science, technology and society. Science and technology by country. Technical universities and colleges. BNF : cbb data. Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in. Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store. Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page.

What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this vps for forex metatrader virtual hosting. Create a book Download as PDF Printable version. This page was last modified on 8 Aprilat Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Hardware s to present. Hardware in Soviet Bloc countries.

Free software and open-source software. Computational complexity theory Quantum computing theory Analysis of algorithms Combinatorial optimization Computational geometry. Compiler design Evolutionary computation Knowledge representation Natural language processing Computational chemistry Library resources about. Resources in your library. Resources in other libraries. Note: This template roughly follows the ACM Computing classification.

UPES (Better Career Options with Specialization in Computer Science & Engineering)

Here are the top 10 jobs for computer science majors. Top 10 Jobs for Computer Science Majors. Search computer science might be an ideal career choice for you. Computer science (CS) and information systems graduates often follow Career path 1, too. Computer scientists continue to fill these positions. Online Masters Degrees at Drexel U. Advance Your Career. Apply Now!.